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APHG test study

Chapter 12 and 13

Basic industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Business services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services.
Central place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central place theory Explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer & father apart than smaller settlements & provide services for more people, willing to travel farther.
Consumer services Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health and leisure services.
Economic base A community's collection of basic industries.
Enclosure movement The process of consolidating small landholding into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the 18th century.
Gravity model Holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the range of the service.
Nonbasic industries Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Primate city The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate city rule A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Public services Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and business.
Range(of a service) The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Rank-size rule A pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support a service.
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Census tract An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published, in urban areas, census tract correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Central business district(CBD) The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Combined statistical area (CSA) In the U.S., two or more contiguous core-based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns.
Concentric zone model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Core base statistical area (CBSA) In the United States, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
Council of goverment A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United states.
Density gradient The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Edge city A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Filtering A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
Food desert An area in a developed country where healthy food is difficult to obtain.
Gentrification A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income. renter-occupied to a predominantly middle class, owner-occupied.
Greenbelt A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Megalopolis A continuous urban complex in the northeastern United States.
Multiple nuclei model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Peripheral model A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Primary census statistical area (PCSA) In the United States, all of the combined statistical areas plus all of the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
Public housing Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30% of the families' income.
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Rush hour The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
Sector model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiation out from the CBD.
Smart growth Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
Social area analysis Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and lifestyle live within an urban area.
Sprawl Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Squatter settlement An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Zoning ordinance A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Created by: Heavenleighallen
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