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APHG test study

Chapter 8 and 9

TermDefinition
Anocracy A country that is not fully democratic or autocratic, but rather displays a mix of both types.
Autocracy A country that is run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people.
Balance of power A condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
City-state A sovereign stat comprising a city and its immediately surrounding countryside.
Colonialism An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose it political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Democracy A country in which citizens select leaders and can run for office.
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Gerrymandering The process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Landlocked state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Self-determination The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern it territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Unitary state An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Active solar energy system Solar energy systems that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices such as photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors.
Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19.
Biomass fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Breeder reactor A nuclear power plant that creates it own fuel from plutonium.
Demand The quantity of something that consumers are willing and able to buy.
Developed country(more developed country [MDC]) A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
Developing country(less developed country [LDC]) A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
Development A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Fair trade An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses & worker-owned & democratically run cooperatives & requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, & comply with minimum environmental & safety standards.
Female labor-force participation The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home.
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
Foreign direct investment(FDI) Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Fracking(hydraulic fracturing) The pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas.
Gender Inequality Index(GII) A measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality.
Gross domestic product(GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period(normally one year).
Gross national income(GNI) The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country.
Human Development Index (HDI) An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nation, that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Hydroelectric power Power generated from moving water. Like dams.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) Modification of the HDI to account for the inequality within a country.
Maternal mortality rate The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births.
MIcrofinance Provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries.
Millennium Development Goals 8 international development goals that all members of the Unite Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015.
Passive solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices.
Photovoltaic cell A solar energy cell, usually made from silicon, that collects solar rays to generate electricity.
Potential reserve The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
Productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Proven reserve The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) The amount of a money needed in one country to purchase the same goods & services in another country, PPP adjusts income figures to account for difference among countries in the cost of goods.
Primary sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, & forestry.
Radioactive waste Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation, contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people, therefore, the materials must be safely stored for thousands of years.
Secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, & assembling raw materials.
Structural adjustment program Economic policies imposed on LDCs by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, etc....
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, & utilities, sometimes extend to the provision of all goods and services to people, in exchange for payment.
Uneven development Development of core regions at the expense of those on the periphery.
Value added The gross value of product - the costs of raw materials & energy.
Created by: Heavenleighallen