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APHG test study
Unit 5 and 6
|a person who advocates the political interests of working farmers; of, or relating to, the ownership, tenure and cultivation of land
|is a generic term for the various businesses involved in food production, including farming and contract farming, seed supply, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesale and distribution, processing, marketing, and retail sales
|Agricultural location model
|An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
|The science and practice of farming including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock
|is the process whereby a population of animals , through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control
|involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions
|decoding of entire genomes, or genetic codes for species, which allows biologists studying organisms, as different as a bacterium and a human being, a common language in which to communicate.
|is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields
|communal farming are types of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise
|Commercial Agricultural(intensive, extensive)
|agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. crop rotation
|the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
|is an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the growing of a certain type of crop or plant group
|branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization of primarily cows, for the production of milk
|financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in conservation measures
|The practice of consecutively producing two crops of either like or unlike commodities on the same land within the same year
|involves the use of scarce resources in the provision of goods to satisfy unlimited wants.
|Extensive subsistence agriculture
|is self-sufficiency farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their families.
|An industry where materials, such as oil and coal, are obtained from under the ground in drilling, mining, and quarrying.
|is a term describing times of agricultural recession, low crop prices and low farm incomes that can lead to farm bankruptcy
|is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in factory farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle
|First agricultural revolution
|the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement
|is the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources
|A carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil
|Globalized agriculture small farms will be replaced by large farms, which in turn will be controlled by giant multinational corporations
|Great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century
|Intensive subsistence agriculture
|is the primary subsistence pattern of large-scale, populous societies
|turning up land between rows of crop plants
|is an area of landscape, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of raising and grazing livestock
|the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
|The Mediterranean climatic region which experiences winter rain and summer drought has given rise to a distinctive type of agriculture. This type of farming is also found in irrigated semi-desert and desert areas in similar latitudes.
|A carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil
|is an economic system in which the state directs the economy
|genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
|is a commercial tropical agriculture system which is essentially export-oriented.
|That which relates to the country
|is a type of edible grain, usually wheat or corn, on which a group of people are dependent
|Sauer, Carl O.
|wrote the article "Recent Developments in Cultural Geography," which considered how cultural landscapes are made up of "the forms superimposed on the physical landscape
|Second agricultural revolution
|took place which increased efficiency of production as well as distribution which allowed more people to move to the cities as the industrial revolution got under way
|the separation of tasks within a system
|commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
|Survey of major patterns of physical features, culture, and human-land relations
|of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself
|Third agricultural revolution
|for the first time farmers using substantial inputs purchased off their farms, in the form of fertilizers for their land and artificial feedstuffs for their animals
|Tragedy of the commons
|a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's interest for this to happen
|commercial gardening and fruit farming so named for bartering or the exchange of commodities
|Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich
|the model location of agri activities in a commercial, profit making economy process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around market, how far from market
|Bid rent theory
|is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate changes as the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) decrease
|a growing environmental peril that severely damages plant and animal life caused by oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere
|a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity
|savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities.
|is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere
|social theories about production and related socio-economic phenomena.
|break of bulk point
|a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks or smaller riverboats for inland distribution
|the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture
|refers to the ability of a party (an individual, a firm, or a country) to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another party
|a mechanism by which an output is enhanced
|the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition
|process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a high period of high unemployment
|economies of scale
|The characteristics of a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit
|tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
|are discovered to be hydro, solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, coal, crude oil, natural gas, and ocean-wave motion and are used to produce power
|entrepo^t A warehouse, depot;
|A commercial center, a place where merchandise is sent for additional processing and distribution
|export processing zone
|zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
|are business expenses that are not dependent on the activities of the business They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month. This is in contrast to variable costs, which are volume-related (and are paid per quantity).
|term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport.
|refers to the highly developed economies of: * Hong Kong * Singapore * South Korea * Taiwan
|shortwave insulation passes through the "glass" of the atmospheric "greenhouse" heats the surface is converted to long-wave radiation that traps heat which raises earth temperature
|concept championed by Nicholas John Spykman to describe the maritime fringe of a country or continent; in particular, the densely populated western, southern, and eastern edges of the Eurasian continent
|industrial location theory
|theory attempting to explain why industries are found to have located in the places they are found. Relate locational factors to the goals of the industry such as minimizing costs (least-cost location) or maximizing profits
|a period from the 18th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe
|is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function international division of labor
|is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase the productivity of labour
|Requiring a great deal of work, especially physical and manual effort
|the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses; labor, transportation and agglomeration major manufacturing regions
|manufacturing exports zones
|a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations. goods destined for global market.
|zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. low wage workers in the primarily foreign owned factories assemble imported compinents and/or raw materials and then export finished goods
|is the idea that an initial amount of spending (usually by the government) leads to increased consumption spending and so results in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending.
|an agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada and Mexico; became effective in 1994 for ten years
|the position of substances in the environment useful and economically feasible and socially acceptable to use
|the transfer of a business function to an external service provider
|a slow, steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period
|Marketing plans, tactics, and methods that have been modified to fit in with the local settings in foreign markets
|Plant location (supplies, "just in time" delivery)
|is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs
|is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization
|Future shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy. Importance:
|special economic zones(China)
|is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws
|is focused on the substitution of a product, service or process to another that is more efficient or beneficial in some way while retaining the same functionality.
|a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world i which time space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
|the deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
|the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services
|A multinational corporation (MNC) also called multinational enterprise (MNE), is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country.
|The state of being everywhere at any given time
|costs that change directly with the amount of production
|was a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography.
|post Fordist production
|the adoption by companies of flexible work rules such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
|the pattern formed by the many separate adjustments that people devise in order to obtain and use resources and solve immediate problems
|The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors etc.
|The land that is used to farm on and what is chosen to put on the fields. Farms, crops, fields, pastures with livestock, etc.
|Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for their own use
|The industrialized countries are identified as the core and the developing countries are the periphery
|extensive subsistence agriculture
|Self-sufficiently farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their family.
|fishing/ hunting and gathering/growing season
|The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. The subsistence method based on edible plants and animals from the wild. The period of year when native plants and ornamental plants grow.
|The representation of the predator-prey relationships between species within an ecosystem or habitat.
|Resources that can regenerate as they are exploited. Resources that can't be regenerated.
|The action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle.
|aluminum business: manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
|location of aluminum industry
|Debate over where the aluminum industry will be placed according to the transportation costs.
|factors of production for aluminum industries
|Massive charges of electricity are required for processing. Electrical power amounts for between 30% and 40% of the cost of producing the aluminum and is the major variable cost influencing plant location in the industry.
|Primary sector: fishing, farming, forestry, mining, etc. Secondary sector: processing, manufacturing Tertiary: transportation, retailing (e.g. cashier), maintenance, etc. Quaternary: education and research, engineering, IT specialist, etc.