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APHG test study

Unit 5 and 6

Agrarian a person who advocates the political interests of working farmers; of, or relating to, the ownership, tenure and cultivation of land
Agribusiness is a generic term for the various businesses involved in food production, including farming and contract farming, seed supply, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesale and distribution, processing, marketing, and retail sales
Agricultural location model An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Agriculture The science and practice of farming including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock
Animal domestication is the process whereby a population of animals , through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control
Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions
Biorevolution decoding of entire genomes, or genetic codes for species, which allows biologists studying organisms, as different as a bacterium and a human being, a common language in which to communicate.
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields
Collective farm communal farming are types of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise
Commercial Agricultural(intensive, extensive) agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. crop rotation
crop rotation the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
cultivation regions is an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the growing of a certain type of crop or plant group
Dairying branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization of primarily cows, for the production of milk
Deb-for-nature swap financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in conservation measures
Double cropping The practice of consecutively producing two crops of either like or unlike commodities on the same land within the same year
Economic activity involves the use of scarce resources in the provision of goods to satisfy unlimited wants.
Extensive subsistence agriculture is self-sufficiency farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their families.
Extractive industry An industry where materials, such as oil and coal, are obtained from under the ground in drilling, mining, and quarrying.
Farm crisis is a term describing times of agricultural recession, low crop prices and low farm incomes that can lead to farm bankruptcy
Feedlot is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in factory farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle
First agricultural revolution the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement
Forestry is the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources
Mineral fuels A carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil
Globalized agriculture Globalized agriculture small farms will be replaced by large farms, which in turn will be controlled by giant multinational corporations
Green revolution Great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century
Intensive subsistence agriculture is the primary subsistence pattern of large-scale, populous societies
Interillage turning up land between rows of crop plants
Livestock ranching is an area of landscape, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of raising and grazing livestock
Market gardening the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
Mediterranean agriculture The Mediterranean climatic region which experiences winter rain and summer drought has given rise to a distinctive type of agriculture. This type of farming is also found in irrigated semi-desert and desert areas in similar latitudes.
Mineral fuels A carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil
Planned economy is an economic system in which the state directs the economy
Plant domestication genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Plantation agriculture is a commercial tropical agriculture system which is essentially export-oriented.
Rural settlement That which relates to the country
Staple grains is a type of edible grain, usually wheat or corn, on which a group of people are dependent
Sauer, Carl O. wrote the article "Recent Developments in Cultural Geography," which considered how cultural landscapes are made up of "the forms superimposed on the physical landscape
Second agricultural revolution took place which increased efficiency of production as well as distribution which allowed more people to move to the cities as the industrial revolution got under way
Specialization the separation of tasks within a system
Suitcase farm commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
Survey Patterns Survey of major patterns of physical features, culture, and human-land relations
Sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself
Third agricultural revolution for the first time farmers using substantial inputs purchased off their farms, in the form of fertilizers for their land and artificial feedstuffs for their animals
Tragedy of the commons a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's interest for this to happen
Truck farm commercial gardening and fruit farming so named for bartering or the exchange of commodities
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich the model location of agri activities in a commercial, profit making economy process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around market, how far from market
Bid rent theory is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate changes as the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) decrease
Acid rain a growing environmental peril that severely damages plant and animal life caused by oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere
Agglomeration a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity
Agglomeration economies savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities.
air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere
Fordism social theories about production and related socio-economic phenomena.
break of bulk point a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks or smaller riverboats for inland distribution
industrial heartland the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture
comparative advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, a firm, or a country) to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another party
cummulative causation a mechanism by which an output is enhanced
deglomeration the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition
deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a high period of high unemployment
economies of scale The characteristics of a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit
ecotourism tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
energy resources are discovered to be hydro, solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, coal, crude oil, natural gas, and ocean-wave motion and are used to produce power
entrepo^t A warehouse, depot; A commercial center, a place where merchandise is sent for additional processing and distribution
export processing zone zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
fixed costs are business expenses that are not dependent on the activities of the business They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month. This is in contrast to variable costs, which are volume-related (and are paid per quantity).
footloose industry term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport.
Four Tigers refers to the highly developed economies of: * Hong Kong * Singapore * South Korea * Taiwan
Greenhouse effect shortwave insulation passes through the "glass" of the atmospheric "greenhouse" heats the surface is converted to long-wave radiation that traps heat which raises earth temperature
Rimland concept championed by Nicholas John Spykman to describe the maritime fringe of a country or continent; in particular, the densely populated western, southern, and eastern edges of the Eurasian continent
industrial location theory theory attempting to explain why industries are found to have located in the places they are found. Relate locational factors to the goals of the industry such as minimizing costs (least-cost location) or maximizing profits
industrial revolution a period from the 18th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe
infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function international division of labor
economic specialization is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase the productivity of labour
labor-intensive Requiring a great deal of work, especially physical and manual effort
least-cost location the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses; labor, transportation and agglomeration major manufacturing regions
manufacturing exports zones a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations. goods destined for global market.
maquiladora zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. low wage workers in the primarily foreign owned factories assemble imported compinents and/or raw materials and then export finished goods
multiplier effect is the idea that an initial amount of spending (usually by the government) leads to increased consumption spending and so results in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending.
NAFTA an agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada and Mexico; became effective in 1994 for ten years
resource orientation the position of substances in the environment useful and economically feasible and socially acceptable to use
outsourcing the transfer of a business function to an external service provider
ozone depletion a slow, steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period
Adaptive strategies Marketing plans, tactics, and methods that have been modified to fit in with the local settings in foreign markets
Plant location (supplies, "just in time" delivery) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs
postindustrial is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization
resource crisis Future shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy. Importance:
special economic zones(China) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws
substitution principle is focused on the substitution of a product, service or process to another that is more efficient or beneficial in some way while retaining the same functionality.
time-space compression a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world i which time space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
topocide the deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
trade(complementary) the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services
transnational corporation A multinational corporation (MNC) also called multinational enterprise (MNE), is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country.
ubiquitous The state of being everywhere at any given time
variable costs costs that change directly with the amount of production
Weber, Alfred was a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography.
post Fordist production the adoption by companies of flexible work rules such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Adaptive strategies the pattern formed by the many separate adjustments that people devise in order to obtain and use resources and solve immediate problems
agricultural industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors etc.
Agricultural landscape The land that is used to farm on and what is chosen to put on the fields. Farms, crops, fields, pastures with livestock, etc.
Agricultural origins Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for their own use
core/periphery The industrialized countries are identified as the core and the developing countries are the periphery
extensive subsistence agriculture Self-sufficiently farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their family.
fishing/ hunting and gathering/growing season The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. The subsistence method based on edible plants and animals from the wild. The period of year when native plants and ornamental plants grow.
food chain The representation of the predator-prey relationships between species within an ecosystem or habitat.
renewable/nonrenewable Resources that can regenerate as they are exploited. Resources that can't be regenerated.
Transhumance The action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle.
aluminum industries aluminum business: manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
location of aluminum industry Debate over where the aluminum industry will be placed according to the transportation costs.
factors of production for aluminum industries Massive charges of electricity are required for processing. Electrical power amounts for between 30% and 40% of the cost of producing the aluminum and is the major variable cost influencing plant location in the industry.
economic sectors Primary sector: fishing, farming, forestry, mining, etc. Secondary sector: processing, manufacturing Tertiary: transportation, retailing (e.g. cashier), maintenance, etc. Quaternary: education and research, engineering, IT specialist, etc.
Created by: Heavenleighallen
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