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APHG test study

Chapter 7 and Unit 4 vocab

TermDefinition
Apartheid Laws(no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization A process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized Descriptive of a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable state because it was not inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood.
Ethnic cleasing A process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous regions.
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a products of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Genocide The mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence.
Nationalism/Nationality Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. /Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and person allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born their.
Race/Racism/Racist Identity with a group of people descended from a biological ancestor. Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits & capacities & that racial differences produce & inherent superiority of a particular race. One who believes in racism.
Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Triangular Slave trade A practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ships transported slave from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Antartica It is the largest land mass in the world not part of a sovereign state. Territorial claims are suspended on Antarctica.
Border landscape The complex representation of the environment around that area
Definitional boundary dispute Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract
Locational boundary dispute Conflict on delimitation or demarcation of boundary
Operational boundary dispute arises due to a conflict about the administration of a boundary
Allocational boundary dispute That usually involves conflicting claims to the natural resources of a region, which lie near on in between the boundaries.
Antecedent boundary origin boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed
Subsequent boundary origin Boundary evolved as the cultural landscape of an area took shape
Superimposed boundary origin A superimposed boundary is one that is created after a population has settled in the region. -'Superimposed' implies that the boundary is 'placed on top' of the existing settlement. -An example could be the Indian-Pakistan borders.
Relic boundary origin A relic boundary is one that has been removed in some way but may still have impact on the land or people. -May be marked by landscape features or cultural differences between the people on opposing sides.
Definition boundary process Through a treaty, or legal like document, sets longitude and latitude. Ex. Germany after world war one with the treaty of Paris
Delimitation boundary process is the term used to describe the drawing of boundaries, but is most often used to describe the drawing of electoral boundaries, specifically those of precincts, states, counties.
Demarcation boundary process the act of setting and marking limits or boundaries
Natural/physical boundary important physical features on Earth's surface can make good boundaries because they are easily seen, both on a map and on the ground. The three types of physical elements serve as boundaries between states: mountains, deserts, and water
Ethnographic/cultural boundary is a boundary line that runs along differences in ethnicity, such as language and religion.
Geometric boundary straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and /or cultural differences, i.e., United States/Canadian border.
Buffer state a relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of them may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Capital principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate it is at the center of a country so it is somewhat equal distance from all parts of the counrty
Centrifugal/Centripetal forces that tend to divide a country. /forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
City-state A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediately surrounding countryside.
Colonialism An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose it political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Confederation a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
Conference of Berlin(1884) The meeting of European powers in 1884-85 resulting in the Berlin Treaty and the partition of Africa into colonies of the attending nations
Core/periphery Refers to the center, heart, or focus. In a nation-state, this area is the heartland with the largest population cluster, the most productive economy, the area with the greatest centrality and accessibility, and probably cantains the capital city as well
Decolonization The action of changing from colonial to independent status
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the ventral government
Domino Theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) Up to 200 nautical miles(370) in which a state has recognized rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed and water.
Electoral regions The analysis of how boundaries are drawn around voting districts.
Enclave/exclave Any small and relatively homogeneous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region/ A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
Ethnic conflict Conflict between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense
European Union international organization comprised of Western Euorpean countries to promote free trade among members
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Forward capital Capital city positioned in actually or potenially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Geopolitics The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.
Gerrymandering The process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Global commons Issues, often forces of nature or natural elements that are not singular to a specific region or territory.
Heartland/rimland Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Immigrant states A type of reciving state which is the target of many immigrants; popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity
International organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Iron Curtain An impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy; a political barrier that isolated the people of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Irredentism A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
Landlocked state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Law of the Sea Law establishing states' rights and responsibilites concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Lebanon A country in West Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the North and East and Israel to the South.
Halford J. Mackinder An English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.
Manifest destiny The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Median-line principle Statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on o0pposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenl
Microstate/ministate A state that encompasses a very small land area. /an imprecise term for a territory, extremely small in both area and population
Nation/nation-state A tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes. /a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
National iconography Figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secualr; more broadly, the art of representation by picutres or images, which may or may not have a symbolic as well as an apparent or superficial meaning
Nunavut An arctic territory in northern Canada created in 1999 and governed solely by the Inuit
Rasion d'etre Reason for being; the purpose that justifies a thing's existence.
Reapportionment The process of a reallocation of elecctoral seats to deifined territories
Regionalism A foreign policy that defines the international interests of a country in terms of particular geographic areas
Religious conflict Conflicts between religions that has often resulted in bloodshed
Reunification The unification of something that was previously divided; used especially of a country
Satellite state National state that is economically dependent and poitically and militarily subservient to another--in its orbit, figuratively speaking
Self-determination The concept that ethnicities have to right to govern themselves.
Shatterbelt A large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political spilintering and fracturing
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern it territory free from control of it internal affairs by other states.
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over it internal and foreign affairs.
Stateless ethnic groups Ethnic groups that share certain cultural, political, and/or historic qualities, such as religion or art, but do not share enough qualities to be recognized as a nationality/nation & have no(homeland)that is politically recognized as belonging to them.
Stateless nation A nation that does not have a state
Suffrage The right to vote.
Supranationalism A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
Territorial disputes Any dispute over land ownership.
Territorial morphology (compact,fragmented,elongated) Compact:A country in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Fragmented:A country that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Elongated:A country with a long, narrow shape
Territoriality In political geography a country's or a more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its desire to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
Theocracy A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
Treaty ports A port kept open for foreign trade according to the terms of a treat, especially formerly in China, Korea, and Japan
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) The international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place from 1973 through 1982
Unitary state An internal organization of a state that place most power in the hands of central government officials.
USSR collapse The primary causes were political and economic and they were result of the culture of war
Women enfranchisement The right of women to vote; exercise of the franchise by women.
Territorial morphology (porupt, perforated) Porupt: An otherwise compact country with a large projecting extension Perforated:A country that completely surrounds another state
Created by: Heavenleighallen