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APHG test study

Chapter 2 and Unit 2 vocab

TermDefinition
Arithmetic density The total number of objects in an area divide by total land area.
Census A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude birth rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population.
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency ratio The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiologic transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for very 1,000 live births in a society.
Life expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
Medical Revolution Medical technology in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
Natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the CBR - the CDR.
Overpopulation A situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population pyramid A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex.
Population Amount of people in a region.
Age distribution One back-to-back bar graph, showing the number of males and showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.
Demographic equation A mathematical determination of the changes in a population. Widely used in business for marketing purposes & consists of a formula taking the increase or decrease in the population (births- deaths) + or - the amount of migration to the demographic area.
Demographic momentum This is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.
Demographic regions This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population.
Diffusion of fertility control The spread of fertility control in an area.
Epidemiological Transition model Distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
J-Curve A growth curve that depicts exponential growth
Maladaptation Poor inadequate adaption.
Thomas Malthus An English economist(1766-1834) that believed that the world's population would outrun the development of food supplies.
Mortality The proportion of death to population.
Natality The ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time often expressed as number of live births per hundred or thousand population per year.
Neo-Malthusian Advocating control of population growth (as by contraception)
Population density A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Population explosion the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
Population projection a statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data
S-curve Curve that depicts logistic growth.
Sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Standard of living the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier
Sustainablilty The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.
Zero population growth(ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Chain migration Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Gravity model A model which holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Internal migration Permanent movement within a particular country.
Intervening opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminished the attractiveness of sites farther away ("distracting" factor that keeps people from looking to migrate elsewhere)
Intercontinental migration Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional migration Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Place utility In human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes (how much a person like a place due to its pull/push factors)
Push/pull factors A factor that induces people to leave old residences./ A factor that induces people to move to a new location.
Refugees People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Space-time prism A diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and the means of mobility at our command
Step migration Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city (migration that takes place in several different steps)
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Transmigration To migrate from one country to another in order to settle there.
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Carrying capacity The population that an area will support without undergoing deterioration.
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
Activity space The space within which daily activity occurs.
Cyclic movement Movement that has a closed routes and is repeated annually or seasonally.
Distance decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from it origin.
Forced distance decay Distance decay pressured by some external force.
Migratory movement Movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another.
Periodic movement Motion that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each recurrence remains the same.
Rural-urban migration Permanent movement from an sparsely populated rural area to a well populated metropolitan area.
Personal space A surrounding area of a person that they hold privacy.
Agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Created by: Heavenleighallen