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APHG test study

Chapter 1 and Unit 1 vocab

TermDefinition
Abiotic Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter.
Atmosphere The thin layer of gases surrounding Earth.
Biosphere All living organisms on Earth, including pants and animals, as well as microorganisms.
Biotic Composed of living organisms.
Cartography The science of making maps.
Climate The long-term average weather condition at a particular location.
Concentration The spread of something over a given area.
Conservation The sustainable management of a natural resource.
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural ecology A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural landscape The fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition.
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Distance Decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Ecology The scientific study of ecosystems.
Ecosystem A group of living organisms and the abiotic sphere with which they interact.
Environmental determinism A 19th-and early 20th-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geography could be found in the physical sciences.Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment cause human activities.
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process.
Formal region(or uniform or homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
Functional region(or nodal region) An area organized around a nod or focal point
Geographic Information Science(GIScience) The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired though satellite and other electronic information technologies.
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking station, and receivers.
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude.
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hiearchical diffusion The spread of a features or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
Housing Bubble A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value.
Hydrosphere All of the water on and near Earth's surface.
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows the 180 degrees longitude, so deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When it is crossed heading east, the clock moves back 24 hours. When it is crossed heading west, the clock moves ahead 24 hours.
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator(0 degrees).
Lithosphere Earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust.
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian.
Map/Map types/Mental map A 2d, or flat, representations of Earth's surface or a portion of it. Dot map, statistical map, thematic map,mental map, etc. A mental image of an area for a individual and what they know about the area.
Map Scale The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature.
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and south poles.
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Polder Land created by the Dutch by drain water from an area.
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Preservation The maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
Prime Meridian The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Projection A system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Regional(or cultural landscape)studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
Relocation Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote Sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods.
Site The physical character of a place.
Space-Time Compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Stimulus diffusion The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarter or shareholders are located.
Uneven developement The increasing gap in economic condition between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Vernacular region(or perceptual region) An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Isoline maps a map with continuous lines joining points of the same value.
Agglomerated a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity
Physiologic Density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land.
Poststructuralist geography Emphasizes the need to understand multiple perspectives regarding space. The experiences of women differ from those of men, black from whites, and gays from straights, etc.
Humanisitic geography A branch of human geography that emphasizes the different ways that individuals perceive their surrounding environment.
Behavioral geography is a branch of human geography that emphasizes the importance of understanding the psychological basis for individual human actions.
Eratosthenes (276?-194?B.C.), the first person of record to use the word geography, prepared one of the earliest maps of the know world.
Ptolemy (A.D. 100?-170?) produced maps that were not improved upon for more that 1,000 years, based on information collected by merchants and soldiers who traveled through the Roman Empire.
Pei Xiu "father of Chinese cartography," produced an elaborate map of China A.D. 267.
Muhammad al-Idrisi (1100-1165?), a Muslim geographer building on Ptolemy's long-neglected work, prepared a world map and geography text in 1154.
Martin Waldseemuller (1470?-1520) produced the first map with the label "America"; he wrote on the map(translated from Latin) "from Amerigo the discoverer...as of it were the land of Americus, thus 'America'".
Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) A Flemish cartographer, created the first modern atlas.
Bernhardus Varenius (1622-1650) produced Geography Generalis, which stood for more than a century as the standard treatise on systematic geography.
Three Pillars of Sustainablilty Environment, society, and economy.
Connection Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Network A chain of communication that connects places.
Nonrenewable resource Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans.
Pattern and types of patterns Geometric or regular arrangement of something study area: Random pattern Centralized pattern: pattern that centralizes on one or more things Linear pattern: pattern on a straight line
Place and Place name A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic. Name given to a place that it is called by.
Renewable resource Something produced in nature more rapidly than is consumed by humans.
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access. and is socially acceptable to use.
Scale Generally, the relationship between the potion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole.
Situation The location of a place relative to another location.
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface.
Time zones Geographical regions within which the same standard time is used.
Geographic model A model of land or a body of water.
Absolute distance and Relative distance The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length such as a mile. The costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating 2 places. Often describes the amount of social, cultural or economic connectivity between 2 places.
Disperse To scatter, far apart.
Absolute location and Relative location A point on the earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system such as latitude and longitude. A location of a place in relation to another place (i.e. south or downhill).
Direction North, South, East, West, forward, backward, sideways, etc.
Built landscape Man-made landscape.
Sequence occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Changing attributes of place Changing attributes of place when an area is globalized and its landscape is transformed.
Distort To twist or pull out of shape. To give a misleading or false account of. This happens when projecting.
North and South poles The northern and southern most point on the earth.
Grid A uniform network of horizontal and perpendicular lines.
Geographic tools Tools use to make a map of an area.
Friction of distance a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Spatial and Spatial interaction Relating to, occupying, or having a character of space. Interaction waning as space between is larger.
Created by: Heavenleighallen