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Chapter 21

Enlightenment and Revolutions

QuestionAnswer
the Earth-centered model of the solar system geocentric
the sun-centered model of the solar system heliocentric
one of Newton's three rules of motion that outlines how planets move in elliptical orbits around each based on a principle called gravity universal law of gravitation
a system of thought encouraged by Descartes that said that the basis of knowledge is reason rationalism
a set of steps to collect and analyze evidence in order to make new scientific hypotheses scientific method
the idea that scientists should look at smaller pieces of evidence in order to identify larger, general principles inductive reasoning
the French word for "philosopher," which was used for intellectuals during the Enlightenment philosophe
a type of government in which power rests in different branches and limits the power of any one branch through a system of checks and balances separation of powers
an 18th century religious philosophy that said that a supreme God had created the universe and set it in motion like a clock deism
the idea that the state should not interfere with the economy laissez-faire
the idea that a society agrees to be governed and people must follow laws for the good of the entire society social contract
the places where Enlightenment thinkers met to discuss ideas salons
an artistic style of the 18th century that was not based on religion rococo
a form of government in which power is shared between the national and state governments federal system
he first proposed the heliocentric model Nicolaus Copernicus
he created laws of planetary motion, including the idea that planets' orbits were elliptical, not circular Johannes Kepler
he is known as the "Father of Modern Science" and proved Copernicus' theory to be true Galileo Galilei
he wrote the "Principia," and outlined the principle of gravity Isaac Newton
he showed that the heart was the beginning point for the circulation of blood and detailed how blood flows through the veins William Harvey
she wrote on a number of scientific matters but her works were not appreciated until after her death Margaret Cavendish
she was a German astronomer who made important contributions to the discipline Maria Winkelmann
he was a French philosopher who is known as the "Father of Modern Philosophy" and said, "I think, therefore I am" Rene Descartes
he was an English philosopher who developed the scientific method Francis Bacon
he was an English philosopher who wrote "Two Treatises of Government" and argued that people were basically good John Locke
he wrote about the separation of powers and his work influenced the American constitution Baron de Montesquieu
he was a French writer who was against the Church and the monarchy and his work influenced the American and French revolutions Voltaire
he is known as the "Father of Modern Economics" and encouraged a laissez-faire economy in his book, "The Wealth of Nations" Adam Smith
she worked for women's rights and used ideas of the Enlightenment to argue for equal rights for women Mary Wollstonecraft
he led the Continental Army in the American Revolution and became the first president of the United States George Washington
he wrote the Declaration of Independence and became the third president of the United States Thomas Jefferson
this movement of the 16th and 17th centuries saw many new scientific and technological discoveries Scientific Revolution
this philosophical movement of the 18th century created new ideas about religion, government, women's rights, and justice the Enlightenment
scientists of the Scientific Revolution often found themselves in trouble with this organization the Catholic Church
this instrument played a crucial role in new discoveries of the Scientific Revolution the telescope
the Enlightenment was strongly influenced by this movement the Scientific Revolution
leaders of the American Revolution looked to ideas from this movement the Enlightenment
during the Enlightenment, this increased significantly reading
the British taxed the colonists in order to raise money for this conflict Seven Years' War
the colonists were upset about these two things taxation and not being represented in British government
the Declaration of Independence was signed on this date July 4, 1776
the British surrendered in the American Revolution in this year 1781
the Treaty of Paris that officially recognized the U.S. as a country was signed in this year 1783
the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution are called this the Bill of Rights
fighting broke out between the colonists and the British in this year 1775
the United States received arms and money from this country France
a result of the American Revolution was this the United States gained its independence
He wrote "The Social Contract" Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He was a famous chemist who made laws related to the properties of gases Robert Boyle
He was a French scientist who created laws related to the properties of liquids Blaise Pascal
Created by: Mrs. Marquardt