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SOL Review: WHI

Review of Essential Knowledge for World History I

The life of early hunter-gatherer societies was shaped by what Their physical environment
How did physical geography determine the lives of early humans They were dependent on the availability of wild plants and animals
Homo sapiens emerged on which continent Africa
How many years ago did homo sapiens emerge 100,000 to 400,000 years ago
Where did home sapiens migrate to Eurasia, Australia and the Americas
What were the characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies They were nomadic, invented the first tools, including simple weapons, learned how to make fire, live in clans, developed oral language and create “cave art”.
The beginning of settled agriculture (including permanent settlements) was a major step in the advance of civilization. True or False True
How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities Once prehistoric man began to domesticate animals and grow crops they didn’t need to be nomadic any longer. They could stay in one place and have enough food.
During the Neolithic Era (NEW STONE AGE) what did prehistoric man develop Pottery, weaving skills, used advance tools, developed agriculture and domesticated animals.
How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life and its changes Archaeologists find artifacts and can use carbon dating to determine how old they are. They can interpret the artifacts they find to make guesses about how the people lived. They locate and examine human remains, fossils and artifacts.
What is carbon dating A technique used by scientist to determine the age of fossils and artifacts.
What is Stonehenge An archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age.
Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys River valleys provide rich soil for crops, as well as protection from invasion.
Where was the Egyptian civilization located Nile River Valley -Africa
Where was the Mesopotamian civilization located Fertile Crescent - Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys - Southwest Asia
Where was the Indian civilization located Indus River Valley - India (South Asia)
Where was the Chinese civilization located Huang He (Yellow River) Valley - East Asia (China)
When did the River Valley civilizations exist 3500-500 BC
Where did the Hebrews settle Between the Med Sea and the Jordan River Valley
Where did the Phoenicians settle Mediterranean Coast
Where were the Kush located Upper Nile River - Africa
What does it mean if someone is a hereditary ruler They become a ruler because one of their relatives (usually your father) was the previous ruler.
Give examples of hereditary rulers. Pharaohs and Kings
What is the caste system People are born into a caste and cannot leave that caste. The caste determines their job and who they can marry or socialize with.
What civilization was the caste system popular in India
What were the world’s first states Empires, kingdoms and city-states
What is a centralized government A Government where a central authority controls the government. Such as with an emperor or king
Give examples of Written Law codes. Hammurabi’s Code and the 10 Commandments
What type of metal did people of the early river valley civilizations use for their tools Bronze and Iron
What caused an increase in the agriculture surplus Better tools, plows and irrigation.
What is irrigation Supplying an area with water
Who increased trade along rivers and by sea Phoenicians
Some of the world’s first cities were created during this time. True or False True
What is specialization of labor When members of society have specific duties such as farming, being a merchant, working in the bureaucracy.
What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations Polytheism, Ancestral Veneration (worship)
What does polytheism mean belief in more than one god
Which was the first early civilization group to practiced monotheism Hebrews
What were the earliest written symbols called Pictograms
What was the early writing of the Egyptians called Hieroglyphics
What was the early writing of the Sumerians called Cuneiform
What was the early writing of the Phoenicians called Alphabet
What was the early writing of the ancient Indians called Sanskrit
What ancient civilization was known to write on oracle bones or tortoise shells Chinese
Where did classical Indian civilization begin Indus River Valley
Where did it spread Ganges River Valley
When the Indo-Aryan people invaded the area what did they create The caste system
What mountain ranges made it more difficult to invade the classical Indian civilizations The Himalayans and the Hindu Kush
What were the most important rivers to classical Indian civilization Ganges and Indus Rivers
Why was the caste system central to Indian culture Because it influenced ALL social interactions and choices of occupations. The Aryans brought it to this region.
What were the accomplishments of the Gupta dynasty Mathematics, new textiles and literature
What river was classical China centered on Huang He
Why was the Great Wall of China built Because migratory invaders always raided Chinese settlements from the North.
Who built the Great Wall Qin Shi Huangdi
What were the ruling families in China called Dynasties
What is the Mandate of Heaven Belief that Chinese rulers were divine (thought they were god-like) and this justified their rule.
What is the importance of the Silk Road Made trade easier and created contact between China and other cultures, as far away as Rome.
The civil service exam was important to what civilization Ancient China
What were some inventions of classical Chinese civilization Paper, Porcelain and Silk
What are the main beliefs of Confucianism Belief that humans are good, not bad; Respect for elders, Code of politeness, Emphasis on education and ancestor worship.
What are the contributions of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values Humility (being modest), simpler life and inner peace, Harmony with Nature
What does Yin/Yang represent Opposites for Confucianism and Taoism
What bodies of water were important to early Greek civilization Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea Black Sea and Dardanelles
What problem did Greek farmers face Limited arable land
What is arable land Land that can be used for farming/growing crops
The economy of the Greek civilization shifted from a barter system to what A money economy (use of coins)
What hindered the development of city-state in Greece The mountainous terrain
Greek city states were designed to promote what Civic and commercial life
Why did Greek city-states start colonizing other lands Because of overpopulation and the search for more arable land
How did democracy develop in Athens Direct democracy. This means the Athenian people did not elect representatives to vote for them. Instead, they voted directly on legislation and executive bills.
How did Sparta differ from Athens in terms of government Sparta had two kings that ruled together. A 28-member council limited their decisions. They were called the “Council of Elders” and were made up of men from the highest social class.
In the Greek polis who were considered citizens Adult free males
How were women and slaves treated in terms of voting rights in early Ancient Greece Not allowed any political rights.
What stages did Athenian democracy go through Monarchy, Aristocracy, Tyranny and Democracy
What is a Monarchy Form of government in which usually one individual rules the state
What is Aristocracy Form of government where the rule is kept by the elite (usually a family of individuals)
What is Tyranny Rule by a Tyrant. Usually a sole ruler holding complete control of a government
What is Democracy Rule by the people
Name two Tyrants who worked for reform in Athens Draco and Solon
Name a few Democratic principles that originated in Athenian democracy: Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen
Give a few examples of duties of a citizen: Voting, paying taxes, and serving on a jury
Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy. What is an oligarchy Rule by a small group
Sparta was a very militaristic and aggressive society. True/False True
When did Spartan warriors start their training Around age 7
How many Persian Wars were there 3
How long did the Persian Wars last 50 years
Between what years were they fought 499-449 BC
Why were the Persian Wars important They united Sparta and Athens against the Persian Empire.
Name the two MOST IMPORTANT Athenian victories in the Persian War. Marathon and Salamis
Why were the battles of Salamis and Marathon important They gave the Greeks control of the Aegean Sea
What was the outcome of the Persian Wars Athens was able to keep its independence and continued innovations in government and culture
What was the war between Athens and Sparta called The Peloponnesian War
How long did this war last 27 years
Between what years was it fought 431-404 BC
Who did Athens ally themselves with in the Peloponnesian War The Delian League
Who did Sparta ally themselves with in the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian League
What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War Competition for control of the Greek world. The belief that Athens was becoming too powerful.
What were the results of the Peloponnesian War A slowing of the cultural advance and the weakening of political power
Why was the leadership of Pericles important to the development of Athenian life and Greek culture Extended democracy; most adult males had equal voice
When did the Golden Age of Pericles take place Between the Persian and Peloponnesian War
What did Pericles do to Athens after the Peloponnesian War; give an example Rebuilt the city; The Parthenon
Sophocles and Aeschylus made important contributions to Greek what Drama
Homer made important contributions to Greek what Poetry
Name two of his most famous writings: The Iliad and The Odyssey
Herodotus and Thucydides made important contributions to Greek what History
Phidias made important contributions to Greek what Sculpture
What three types of columns did the ancient Greeks use Doric, Ionian and Corinthian
Hippocrates and Archimedes made important contributions to Greek what Science
Euclid and Pythagoras made important contributions to Greek what Math
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle made important contributions to Greek what Philosophy
Where was King Philip II from Macedonia
Where is Macedonia located Just north of Greece
How was King Philip able to conquer most of Greece Because Greek defenses were weakened after the Peloponnesian War
Who was Alexander the Great King Philip’s son
Where did Alexander establish his empire From Greece to Egypt and the margins of India
What was the Hellenistic Age The period between the Death of Alexander the Great and annexation of the Greek peninsula by Rome.
What are the characteristics of the Hellenistic age Blending of Greek culture and oriental elements. A spread of Hellenistic culture through trade
Where was Rome located Centrally located on Italian Peninsula.
Why is its location important Italy centrally located in Med Basin and distant from Eastern Med powers.
What mountain range is at the top of Italy Why is this important
Who were the Patricians Powerful nobility (few in numbers)
Who were the Plebeians Majority of population
Who were the slaves Not race based. Could be prisoners of war or debtors.
Who was a citizen of Rome Patrician and Plebeian MEN; selected foreigners.
What were some rights and responsibilities of citizens in Rome Pay taxes, serve in the military
Describe the features of ancient Roman government: Representative democracy; Assemblies; The Senate; Consuls
What were the Laws of Rome called The Twelve Tables
Who were the Punic Wars fought between Carthage and Rome
When did the Punic Wars take place 264-146BC
How many Punic Wars were there 3
Who won the Punic Wars Rome won all three.
Which Punic War did Hannibal fight in Second
What was the end result of the Punic Wars Carthage was destroyed; Roman wealth and trade expanded.
Why is Hannibal remembered Tried to invade Rome from the North. Crossed the Alps with elephants.
Where did the Roman Empire spread All over Med Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe) ; Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)
List causes for the decline of the Roman Republic: Spread of slavery in the agricultural system; migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment; civil war over the power of Julius Caesar; devaluation of Roman currency (inflation)
What was the First Triumvirate Political alliance b/w Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey
Who was Augustus Caesar Came to power during civil war, defeated Marc Anthony; became Rome’s first Emperor
What was the Pax Romana The Roman Peace that lasted for 200 years.
What occurred during the Pax Romana The empire prospered, expanded and solidified esp. in the Near East
What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana Established a uniform system of money, guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads, Promoted prosperity and stability
What was the social impact of the Pax Romana Returned stability to the classes; increased the emphasis on family (Pater familias)
What was the political impact of the Pax Romana Created a civil service and developed a uniform rule of law
What was the impact of the early Church in the late Roman Empire Church became moral authority; loyalty to church became more important than loyalty to the emperor; Church became main unifying force of Western Europe
List contributions of Roman Art/Architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
List contributions of Roman technology: Roads, aqueducts, roman arches
Who was the greatest Roman scientist Ptolemy
List contributions of Roman medicine: Emphasis on public health; public baths, public water system, medical schools.
What language did Romans speak Latin
What caused the decline of the Western Roman Empire Cost too much to defend; inflation; military started to include invaders (resulted in poor discipline); people lost faith in Rome and in their family; civil conflicts and weak administration; attacks on borders
How was the Roman Empire divided after the fall Capital moved from Rome to Byzantium by Constantine (renamed the city Constantinople)
What did the Eastern Roman Empire become known as Byzantine Empire
Why is Constantinople’s location important Protects the Eastern frontier; distant from Germanic invasions; crossroad of trade; easily fortified site on a peninsula with a natural harbor
What was the role of Constantinople Seat of the Byzantine Empire until the Ottoman conquest; preserved classic Greco-Roman culture
Where was Emperor Justinian in charge of Byzantine Empire
Why is Justinian remembered Justinian Code (codification of Roman laws; impact European laws); Reconquest of Roman territories; Expansion of trade
What were the Byzantine achievements in art and architecture They were provided inspiration from Christian religion and imperial power
What are Icons Religious images
What are mosaics Decorations that use small pieces of colored glass or stone that are pieced together to create a picture.
What is the Hagia Sophia A Byzantine domed church
What led to the division of the Church during the rule of the Byzantine Empire Cultural and political differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.
What were the core practices of the Eastern Church Used Greek during the service; centered in Constantinople
What were the core practices of the Western Church Centered in Rome; used Latin during the service
What is the center of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople
What two seas are located in this area Black Sea and Baltic Sea
Why are these important for trade Because Byzantine culture and religion can be spread along the trade routes.
What is the alphabet of the Slavic languages called Cyrillic
How did Islam spread Along trade routes from Mecca to Medina ; eventually to the Fertile Crescent, Iran, central Asia
What language spread with the expansion of Islam Arabic
Name some major historical turning points in Islamic history: Division of the Sunni-Shi’ite sects; Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and the Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours (kept Islam out of Western Europe)
What became more important during the Middle Ages: The Church or Roman authority THE CHURCH
What is a monastery A place where a monk lives
Who spread Christianity during the Middle Ages Missionaries
Who was the First Emperor to be appointed by the Pope in 800AD Charlemagne or Charles the Great
What kind of invasions helped create the feudal society Vikings
What is a fief An estate granted to a noble in exchange for loyalty and military help; came with peasants to work the land
What is a vassal A noble who held land from and served a higher-ranking lord
What are serfs Peasant laborers who were legally bound to the lands of a noble
What were feudal obligations Duties that had to be fulfilled under the feudal system. They may include providing military service, giving a portion of the crops to the lord, etc.
Who was the greatest Frankish King Charlemagne aka Charles the Great
Who crowned Charlemagne Emperor The Pope
The crowing of Charlemagne as Emperor by the Pope meant what for Christianity It established the power of the church in political life
Where were the Angles and Saxons from Continental Europe and England
Where were the Magyars from Central Asia to Hungary
Where were the Vikings from Scandinavia to Russia
The Angles, Saxons, Magyars and Vikings strengthened what system in Medieval Europe Feudal System / Manorial System
What did invasions from these three groups do Disrupted trade, declined the building of towns
Created by: nweishaupt