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Europe Terms

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Phoenicians seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
Alexander the Great successor of Philip II; successfully conquered the Persian empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
Olympic Games one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations.
Pericles Athenian political leader during 5th century B.C.E.; guided development of Athenian Empire.
Peloponnesian War war from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for domination in Greece; the Spartans won but failed to achieve political unification in Greece.
Philip of Macedonia ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; conquered Greece.
Hellenistic culture associated with the spread of Greek influence and intermixture with other cultures as a result of Macedonian conquests.
Roman Republic the balanced political system of Rome from circa 510 to 47 B.C.E.; featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and popular assemblies.
Punic Wars three wars (264–146 B.C.E.) between Rome and the Carthaginians; saw the transformation of Rome from a land to a sea power.
Carthage founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic wars with Rome for Mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the Romans.
Hannibal Carthaginian general during the second Punic War; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome.
Julius Caesar general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in B.C.E. by conservative senators.
Caesar Augustus (63 B.C.E.–14 C.E.) name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
Diocletian Roman emperor from 284 to 305 C.E.; restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection.
Constantine Roman emperor from 312 to 337 C.E.; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually.
Polis city-state form of government typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Direct democracy literally, rule of the people—in Athens, it meant all free male citizens; all decisions emanated from the popular assembly without intermediation of elected representatives.
Senate assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constitution.
Consuls two chief executives of the Roman republic; elected annually by the assembly dominated by the aristocracy.
Aristotle Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander; taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in material world.
Cicero conservative senator and Stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day.
Stoics Hellenistic philosophers; they emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery.
Socrates Athenian philosopher of later 5th century B.C.E.; tutor of Plato; urged rational reflection in moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young.
Sophocles Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex.
Iliad and Odyssey Greek epic poems attributed to Homer; defined relations of gods and humans that shaped Greek mythology.
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian three distinct styles of Hellenic architecture; listed in order of increasing ornate quality.
Diocletian Roman emperor (284–305 C.E.); restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection.
Constantine Roman emperor (321–337 C.E.); established his capital at Constantinople; used Christianity to unify the empire.
Byzantine Empire eastern half of the Roman Empire; survived until 1453; retained Mediterranean, especially Hellenistic, culture.
Augustine (Saint) North African Christian theologian; made major contributions in incorporating elements of classical philosophy into Christianity.
Jesus of Nazareth prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah; executed c. 30 C.E.
Paul one of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church.
Pope Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.
Council of Nicaea Christian council that met in 325 C.E. to determine orthodoxy with respect to the Trinity; insisted on divinity of all persons of the Trinity.
Benedict of Nursia founder of monasticism in the former western half of the Roman Empire; established the Benedictine rule in the 6th century.
Crusades invasions of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291.
Hagia Sophia great domed church constructed during reign of Justinian.
Belisarius (c. 505–565); one of Justinian’s most important military commanders during the attempted reconquest of western Europe.
Greek fire Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; used to drive back the Arab fleets attacking Constantinople.
Bulgaria Slavic kingdom in Balkans; constant pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Basil II in 1014.
icon images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians.
Cyril and Methodius Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Kiev commercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians in 9th century; became the center for a kingdom that flourished until the 12th century.
Rurik legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of Kievan Rus’ in 855.
Kievan Rus’ the predecessor to modern Russia; a medieval state that existed from the end of the 9th to the middle of the 13th century; its territory spanned parts of modern Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia.
Vladimir I ruler of Kiev (980–1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity.
Russian Orthodoxy Russian form of Christianity brought from Byzantine Empire.
Yaroslav (975–1054); Last great Kievan monarch; responsible for codification of laws, based on Byzantine codes.
boyars Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts.
Tatars Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th century; left Russian church and aristocracy intact.
Middle Ages the period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century.
Vikings seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America. Formed permanent territories in Normandy and Sicily.
manorialism rural system of reciprocal relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; peasants exchanged labor for use of land and protection.
serfs peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system.
moldboard adjunct to the plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
three-field system practice of dividing land into thirds, rotating between two different crops and pasturage—an improvement making use of manure.
Clovis King of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496.
Carolingians royal house of Franks from 8th to 10th century.
Charles Martel first Carolingian king of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732.
Charlemagne Carolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany circa 800.
Holy Roman emperors political heirs to Charlemagne’s empire in northern Italy and Germany; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.
vassals members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England.
Magna Carta Great charter issued by King John of England in 1215; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy and the supremacy of law.
parliaments bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the principle that kings ruled with the advice and consent of their subjects.
three estates the three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries
Hundred Years War conflict between England and France (1337–1453).
Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
Gregory VII 11th-century pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
investiture the practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Peter Abelard Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Thomas Aquinas creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
scholasticism dominant medieval philosophical approach; so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems.
gothic an architectural style that developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Hanseatic League an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
guilds associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in cities.
Black Death bubonic plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe’s population; affected social structure.
Golden Horde one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russia during the 13th and 14th centuries.
khanates four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Battle of Kulikova Russian victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
Prester John a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan.
Berke ruler of the Golden Horde (r. 1257–1266); converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
Timur-i Lang last major nomad leader; 14th, known to the West as Tamerlane; century Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.
Renaissance cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy circa 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages.
Francesco Petrarch Italian author and humanist; a major literary figure of the Renaissance.
Castile and Aragon regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Vivaldi Genoese explorers who attempted to find a western route to the “Indies”; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic.
da Gama, Vasco Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean.
Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in late postclassical Europe.
world economy created by Europeans during the late 16th century; based on control of the seas; established an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products.
Cape of Good Hope southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator in the service of Aragon and Castile; sailed west to find a route to India and instead came upon the Americas in 1492.
East India Companies British and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions.
Lepanto naval battle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire resulting in Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims.
core nations nations, usually European, that profited from the world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services; exported manufactured goods and imported raw materials.
mercantilism the colonial economic policy, by which a colonizing nation must import only from its own colonies, but sell exports as widely as possible.
mestizos people of mixed European and Native American heritage.
Vasco de Balboa (1475?–1517), Spanish adventurer; explored Central America.
Francisco Pizarro (1478–1541) Spanish explorer; arrived in the Americas in 1502; joined Balboa in Panama, then successfully attacked the Inca Empire.
New France French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
Seven Years’ War fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between 1756 and 1763; the first worldwide war.
Treaty of Paris concluded in 1763 following the Seven Years’ War; Britain gained New France and ended France’s importance in India.
Cape Colony Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to provide a coastal station for Dutch ships traveling to and from Asia; settlers expanded and fought with Bantu and other Africans.
Boers Dutch and other European settlers in Cape Colony before 19th-century British occupation; later called Afrikaners.
Calcutta British East India Company headquarters in Bengal; captured in 1756 by Indians; later became administrative center for populous Bengal.
Niccolo Machiavelli author of The Prince; emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power.
humanism philosophy, or ideology, with a focus on humanity as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.
Northern Renaissance cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.
Francis I king of France (r. 1494–1547); one of many monarchs of the Renaissance period who were influential through their patronage of the arts.
Johannes Gutenberg introduced movable type to western Europe in the 15th century; greatly expanded the availability of printed materials.
European-style family emerged in the 15th century; involved a later marriage age and a primary emphasis on the nuclear family.
Martin Luther German Catholic monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation; emphasized the primacy of faith for gaining salvation in place of Catholic sacraments; rejected papal authority.
Protestantism general wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; formally began with Martin Luther in 1517.
Anglican church form of Protestantism in England established by Henry VIII.
Jean Calvin French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group in Geneva; in the long run encouraged wider public education and access to government.
Catholic Reformation Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine.
Jesuits Catholic religious order founded during Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work outside of Europe.
Edict of Nantes 1598 grant of tolerance in France to French Protestants after lengthy civil wars between Catholics and Protestants.
Thirty Years War war from 1618 to 1648 between German Protestants and their allies and the Holy Roman emperor and Spain; caused great destruction.
Treaty of Westphalia ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right of individual rulers and cities to choose their own religion for their people; Netherlands gained independence.
English Civil War conflict from 1640 to 1660; included religious and constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of a limited monarchy.
proletariat class of people without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture, or urban poor; product of the economic changes of the 16th and 17th centuries.
witchcraft persecution outburst reflecting uncertainties about religious truth and resentments against the poor, especially women.
Scientific Revolution process culminating in Europe during the 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; became a central focus of Western culture.
Copernicus Polish monk and astronomer; disproved Hellenistic belief that the sun was at the center of the universe.
Johannes Kepler resolved basic issues of planetary motion and accomplished important work in optics.
Galileo publicized Copernicus’s findings; added own discoveries concerning the laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
William Harvey English physician who demonstrated the circular movement of blood in animals and the function of the heart as pump.
Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesmen, author, and scientist; best known for work on the scientific method.
René Descartes philosopher who established the importance of the skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human wisdom could develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
Isaac Newton English scientist; author of Principia; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.
Deism concept of God during the Scientific Revolution; the role of divinity was limited to setting natural laws in motion.
John Locke English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through their senses and reason; argued that the power of government came from the people, not from the divine right of kings; they had the right to overthrow tyrants.
absolute monarchy concept of government developed during the rise of the nation-state in western Europe during the 17th century; monarchs held the absolute right to direct their state.
Louis XIV French king who personified absolute monarchy.
Glorious Revolution English political settlement of 1688 and 1689 that affirmed that parliament had basic sovereignty over the king.
parliamentary monarchy originated in England and Holland in the seventeenth century, with monarchs partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick the Great Prussian king who introduced Enlightenment reforms; included freedom of religion and increased state control of the economy.
Enlightenment intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; argued for scientific advance, the application of scientific methods to study human society; believed that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Adam Smith established new school of economic thought; argued that governments should avoid regulation of economies in favor of the free play of market forces.
Denis Diderot French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the Encyclopedie.
Mary Wollstonecraft Enlightenment English feminist thinker; argued that political rights should be extended to women.
mass consumerism the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services below elite levels, along with a growing economic capacity to afford some of these goods.
proto-globalization term used to describe the increase of global contacts from the sixteenth century onward, particularly in trade, while also distinguishing early modern developments from the more intense exchanges characteristic of outright globalization.
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the kingdom of Spain; initiated exploration of the New World.
Treaty of Tordesillas concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession; in the New World, Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain.
letrados university-trained lawyers from Spain; basic personnel of the Spanish colonial bureaucratic system.
Recopilación body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish New World possessions; bases of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies.
War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713); wide-ranging war fought between European nations; resulted in the installation of Philip of Anjou as king of Spain.
Charles III Spanish monarch (1759–1788); instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
José de Galvez Spanish Minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from the upper colonial bureaucracy; created intendants for local government.
Marquis of Pombal Prime Minister of Portugal (1755–1776); strengthened royal authority in Brazil, expelled the Jesuits, enacted fiscal reforms, and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Comunero Revolt a popular revolt against Spanish rule in New Granada in 1781; suppressed as a result of government concessions and divisions among rebels.
Ivan III (the Great) Prince of the Duchy of Moscow; responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols; took the title of tsar (caesar).
Ivan IV (the Terrible) confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
Cossacks peasant-adventurers with agricultural and military skills, recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia.
Time of Troubles early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion following the death of Ivan IV, who died without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Romanov dynasty ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917.
Alexis Romanov Second Romanov ruler; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over the Orthodox church.
Old Believers conservative Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov; many were exiled to southern Russia or Siberia.
Peter I (the Great) tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Catherine the Great German-born Russian tsarina; combined selective receptivity to Enlightenment ideas with strong centralizing policies; converted the nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them new power over the peasantry.
Pugachev rebellion unsuccessful peasant uprising led by cossack Emelyan Pugachev during the 1770s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter.
partition of Poland three separate divisions of Polish territory between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as an independent state.
Mehmed II “the Conqueror”; Ottoman sultan; captured Constantinople, 1453, and destroyed the Byzantine Empire.
Janissaries conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions; became an important political influence after the 15th century.
Macao and Canton the only two ports in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade.
Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
caravels Slender, long-hulled vessels used by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Asian sea trading network divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival; an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone with paper, porcelain, and silks.
mercantilists proponents of mercantilism; an economic theory that gave central importance to maintaining a positive balance of trade with other nations.
Ormuz Portuguese establishment at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; a major trading base.
Goa Indian city developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European population.
factories European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; used throughout the Portuguese trading empire to ensure secure landing places and commerce.
Batavia Dutch establishment on Java; created in 1620.
Dutch trading empire the Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Luzon island of the northern Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of a major Catholic missionary effort.
Mindanao island of the southern Philippines; a Muslim area able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Francis Xavier Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan.
Robert di Nobili Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of converting indigenous elites first.
age of revolution period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution and ending with the Revolutions of 1848.
population revolution huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization.
proto-industrialization preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.
American Revolution rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
French Revolution overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon’s French Empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Louis XVI Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.
guillotine introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.
nationalism political viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often allied with other “isms”; urged importance of national unity; valued collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
Napoleon Bonaparte army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815.
Congress of Vienna met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.
conservative political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church.
liberal political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
radical followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis
Greek Revolution rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
Reform Bill of 1832 British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class.
Chartist movement attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands incorporated into a series of petitions or charters.
Louis Pasteur discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.
American Civil War (1861–1865) fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
transformismo political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals.
social question issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
socialism political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
Karl Marx German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
revisionism socialist thought that disagreed with Marx’s formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
feminist movements sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
mass leisure culture an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
Charles Darwin biologist who developed the theory of evolution of the species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Triple Alliance alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Triple Entente agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Balkan nationalism movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I
Holy Alliance alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of the established order; formed by the most conservative monarchies of Europe during the Congress of Vienna.
Decembrist rising unsuccessful 1825 political revolt in Russia by mid-level army officers advocating reforms.
Crimean War (1854–1856) began with a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; France and Britain joined on the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to Russian reforms under Alexander II.
emancipation of the serfs Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.
zemstvoes local political councils created as part of Alexander II’s reforms; gave middle-class professionals experience in government but did not influence national policy.
trans-Siberian railroad constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia.
Sergei Witte Russian minister of finance (1892–1903); economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investment in industry.
intelligentsia Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.
anarchists political groups that thought the abolition of formal government was a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world’s first large terrorist movement.
Lenin (Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov) Russian Marxist leader; insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells.
Bolsheviks literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russo-Japanese War 1904; Russian expansion into northern China leads to war; rapid Japanese victory followed.
duma Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Stolypin reforms Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a market-oriented peasantry.
kulaks agricultural entrepreneurs who used the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
terakoya commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
Archduke Ferdinand Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne assassinated at Sarajevo in 1914; precipitated World War I.
Sarajevo administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian empire; assassination there of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I
Western Front war line between Belgium and Switzerland during World War I; featured trench warfare and massive casualties among combatants.
Nicholas II Russian tsar; (r. 1894–1917); executed 1918.
Gallipoli World War I battle, 1915; unsuccessful attempt in defense of the Dardanelles.
Armenian genocide launched by Young Turk leaders in 1915; claimed up to one million lives.
Eastern Front war zone from the Baltic to the Balkans where Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, and Balkan nations fought.
Adolph Hitler Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Georges Clemenceau French premier desiring harsher peace terms for Germans.
David Lloyd George British prime minister; attempted to mediate at peace conference between Clemenceau and Wilson.
self-determination right of people in a region to determine whether to be independent.
League of Nations international organization of nations created after World War I; designed to preserve world peace; the United States never joined.
National Congress party political party that grew from regional associations of Western-educated Indians in 1885; dominated by elites; was the principal party throughout the colonial period and after independence.
B. G. Tilak first populist leader in India; believed that Indian nationalism should be grounded in the Hindu majority; exiled by the British.
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909) provided Indians with expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and national legislative councils.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (1919) increased national powers of Indian legislators and placed provincial administrations under ministries controlled by Indian-elected legislatures.
Rowlatt Act (1919) placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights; undercut impact of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Mohandas Gandhi Western-educated Indian lawyer and nationalist politician with many attributes of an Indian holy man; stressed nonviolent tactics and headed the movement for Indian independence.
satyagraha “truth force”; Gandhi’s policy of nonviolent opposition to British rule.
Lord Cromer British advisor to the Egyptian government; his reform program benefited the elite and foreign merchants, not the mass of Egyptians.
effendi prosperous business and professional urban Egyptian families; generally favored independence.
Dinshawi incident 1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental Egyptian death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression that stimulated nationalist sentiment.
Ataturk also known as Mustafa Kemal; president of Turkey, (r. 1923–1938); responsible for Westernization of Turkey.
Hussein sherif of Mecca; supports British in World War I for promise of independence following the war.
mandates governments entrusted to victorious European World War I nations over the colonies of the defeated powers.
Zionism European Jewish movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine.
Balfour Declaration (1917) British promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine.
Leon Pinsker European Zionist who believed that Jewish acceptance in Christian nations was impossible; argued for a return to the Jewish Holy Land.
Theodor Hertzl Austrian Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; was unsympathetic to Arabs and promoted Jewish immigration into Palestine to form a Jewish state.
Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935); French Jew, falsely accused of treason in 1894; acquitted 1906; his false conviction fueled Zionism.
cubist movement headed by Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes.
Benito Mussolini Fascist premier of Italy (r. 1922–1943); formed the fascio di combattimento in 1919.
fascism political ideology that became predominant in Italy under Benito Mussolini during the 1920s; attacked the weakness of democracy and the corruption and class conflict of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs.
syndicalism organization of industrial workers to control the means of production and distribution
Aleksander Kerensky liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; attempted development of parliamentary rule, but supported continuance of the war against Germany.
Red Army built up under the leadership of Leon Trotsky; its victories secured communist power after the early years of turmoil following the Russian Revolution.
New Economic Policy (NEP) initiated in 1921 by Lenin; combined the state establishing basic economic policies with individual initiative; allowed food production to recover.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) Russian federal system controlled by the Communist Party established in 1923.
Supreme Soviet communist-controlled parliament of the U.S.S.R.
Joseph Stalin Lenin’s successor as leader of the U.S.S.R.; strong nationalist view of communism; crushed opposition to his predominance; ruled U.S.S.R. until his death in 1953.
Comintern Communist International, an organization under dominance of the U.S.S.R.; designed to encourage the spread of communism in the rest of the world.
collectivization creation of large, state-run farms replacing individual holdings; allowed mechanization of agriculture and more efficient control over peasants.
Great Depression international economic crisis following World War I; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929.
Popular Front alliance of French socialist, liberal, and communist parties; won election in 1936; blocked from reform efforts by conservative opposition; fell in 1938.
New Deal President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to combat economic depression.
totalitarian state a 20th-century form of government that exercised direct control over all aspects of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and other communist states.
Spanish Civil War civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed.
corporatism conservative political movement emphasizing the organic nature of society, with the state as mediator between different groups.
five-year plans Stalin’s plans to hasten industrialization of U.S.S.R.; constructed massive factories; led to state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.
National Soviet (Nazi) Party founded by Adolf Hitler in the period of the Great Depression in Germany.
Winston Churchill British prime minister during World War II; exemplified British determination to resist Germany.
Blitzkrieg German term meaning lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of troops and tanks.
Vichy collaborationist French government established at Vichy in 1940 following defeat by Germany.
Battle of Britain British defeat of the Nazi air offensive.
Holocaust Germany’s attempted extermination of European Jews and others; 12 million, including 6 million Jews, died.
Battle of the Bulge failed Nazi effort in 1943–1945 to repel invading allied armies.
Pearl Harbor American naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan in December 1941; caused American entry into World War II.
Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway Island United States air and naval victories over the
Japanese; opened the way for attack on Japanese homeland.
United Nations global organization, founded by the Allies following World War II.
Teheran Conference (1944) meeting between the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union; decided to open a new front against Germany in France; gave the Russians a free hand in eastern Europe.
Yalta Conference (1945) agreed-upon Soviet entry into the war against Japan, organization of the United Nations; left eastern Europe to the Soviet Union.
Potsdam Conference (1945) meeting between the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; the allies accepted Soviet control of eastern Europe; Germany and Austria were divided among the victors.
total war 20th century warfare; resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity.
Atlantic Charter 1941 pact between the United States and Britain; gave Britain a strong ally; in return the document contained a clause recognizing the right of all people to select their own government.
cold war struggle from 1945 to 1989 between the communist and democratic worlds; ended with the collapse of Russia.
eastern bloc the eastern European countries of Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Eastern Germany dominated by the Soviet Union during the cold war.
Harry Truman United States president who presided over the end of World War II and the beginnings of the cold war.
iron curtain term coined by Churchill to describe the division between the Western and communist nations.
Marshall Plan 1947 United States program to rebuild Europe and defeat domestic communist movements.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in 1949 under U.S. leadership to group Canada and western Europe against the Soviets.
Warsaw Pact the Soviet response to NATO; made up of Soviets and their European satellites.
welfare state Great Depression-inspired system that increased government spending to provide social insurance and stimulate the economy.
technocrat a new type of bureaucrat trained in the sciences or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; rose to importance in governments after World War II.
Green movement rise during the 1970s in Europe of groups hostile to uncontrolled economic growth.
European Union began by six nations as the European Economic Community (Common Market); by the 21st century incorporated most western European states and was expanding eastward.
new feminism a wave of agitation for women’s rights dating from about 1949; emphasized equality between sexes.
Berlin Wall built in 1961 to prevent the flight of East Germans to the West; dismantled in 1990.
Solidarity Polish labor movement beginning in the 1970s, taking control of the country from the Soviet Union.
Socialist realism Soviet effort to replace Western literature and arts with works glorifying state-approved achievements by the masses.
Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn Russian author of works critical of the Soviet regime; included the trilogy on Siberian prison camps, the Gulag Archipelago.
Mikhail Gorbachev leader of the U.S.S.R. (1985–1991); inaugurated major reforms that led to the disintegration of the communist regime.
Glasnost term meaning openness; Gorbachev policy opening the opportunity to criticize the government.
Perestroika term meaning economic restructuring; Gorbachev policy for the economic rebuilding of the U.S.S.R. by allowing more private ownership and decentralized economic control.
Boris Yeltsin successor to Gorbachev; failed to reform the economy; succeeded by Vladimir Putin in 1999.
globalization the increasing interconnectedness of all parts of the world; opposed by many environmental and social justice groups.
multinational corporations business organizations with connections across political borders.
socialist realism attempt within U.S.S.R. to relate formal culture to the masses; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.
Politburo executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
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