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Africa Terms

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Pharaoh the term used to denote the kings of ancient Egypt; the term, “great house” refers to the palace of the pharaohs.
Pyramids monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
Kush African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile circa 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
Carthage founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic wars with Rome for Mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the Romans.
Hannibal Carthaginian general during the second Punic War; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome.
Axum a state in the Ethiopian highlands; received influences from the Arabian peninsula; converted to Christianity.
Ethiopia kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Meroë in first century C.E.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity.
Sahara desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa.
Coptic Christian sect in Egypt, later tolerated after Islamic takeover
Copts, Nestorians Christian sects of Syria and Egypt; gave their support to the Arabic Muslims.
stateless societies societies of varying sizes organized through kinship and lacking the concentration of power found in centralized states.
Ifriqiya Roman name for present-day Tunisia.
Maghrib Arabic term for northwestern Africa.
Almohadis a later puritanical Islamic reform movement among the Berbers of northwest Africa; also built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain.
juula Malinke merchants who traded throughout the Mali Empire and west Africa.
Sundiata created a unified state that became the Mali empire; died in 1260.
griots professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.
Ibn Batuta Arab traveler throughout the Muslim world.
Timbuktu Niger River port city of Mali; had a famous Muslim university.
Songhay successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of the Niger valley; capital at Gao.
Hausa peoples of northern Nigeria, formed states following the demise of Songhay Empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions.
Muhammad the Great extended the boundaries of Songhay in the mid-16th century.
Sharia Islamic law, defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance.
Zenj Arabic term for the east African coast.
Benin powerful city-state (in present-day Nigeria) that came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century.
demography the study of population.
demographic transition shift to low birth rate, low infant death rate, stable population, first emerged in western Europe and United States in late 19th century.
Kongo large agricultural state on the lower Congo River; capital at Mbanza Congo.
Great Zimbabwe with massive stone buildings and walls, incorporates the greatest early buildings in sub-Saharan Africa.
Baibars commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
Cape Colony Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to provide a coastal station for Dutch ships traveling to and from Asia; settlers expanded and fought with Bantu and other Africans.
Boers Dutch and other European settlers in Cape Colony before 19th-century British occupation; later called Afrikaners.
Cape of Good Hope southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Nzinga Mvemba Ruler of the Kong kingdom (1507-1543); converted to Christianity; his efforts to integrate Portuguese and African ways foundered because of the slave trade.
Osei Tutu important ruler who began centralization and expansion of Asante.
Asantehene title, created by Osei Tutu, of the civil and religious ruler of Asante
Luo Nilotic people who migrated from the Upper Nile regions to established dynasties in the lakes region of central Africa
Usuman Dan Fodio Muslim Fulani leader who launched a great religious movement among the Hausa.
Shaka ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa during the early 19th century; caused migrations and alterations in African political organization
Saltwater slaves name given to slaves born in Africa; distinguished from American-born descendants, the creoles
Surinam Maroons descendants of the 18th century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rainforests of Suriname and French Guiana.
Fulani Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804; launched revolt against Hausa Kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
Creole slaves American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
William Wilberforce British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807
Factories trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans
Indies piece a unit in the complex exchange system of the West African trade; based on the value of an adult male slave
Royal African Company chartered in Britain in the 1660s to establish a monopoly over the African trade; supplied slaves to British New World colonies.
Triangular trade complex commercial pattern linking Africa, the Americas, and Europe; slaves from Africa went to the New World; American agricultural products went to Europe; European goods went to Africa
Great Trek movement inland during the 1830s of Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government.
Mfecane wars among Africans in southern Africa during the early 19th century; caused migrations and alterations in African political organization.
Middle Passage Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th- 18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.
Obeah African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
Candomble African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Vodun African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti
El Mina Most important of early Portuguese trading facorties in forest zone of Africa
Luanda Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
Asante empire Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi
Dahomey Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
Swazi New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane
Lesotho Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu modle; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.
Palmares Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Suriname Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerrilla resistance.
Isandhlwana (1879) Zulu defeat of a British army; one of the few indigenous victories over 19th-century European armies.
tropical dependencies Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations.
settlement colonies colonies—such as South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii—where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples.
White Dominions a type of settlement colony—as in North America and Australia—where European settlers made up the majority of the population.
white racial supremacy belief in the inherent superiority of whites over the rest of humanity; peaked in the period before World War I.
Natal British colony in southern Africa; developed after Boer trek north from Cape Colony; major commercial outpost at Durban.
Boer republics independent states—the Orange Free State and Transvaal—established during the 1850s in the South African interior by Afrikaners.
Cecil Rhodes British entrepreneur in South Africa; manipulated the political situation to gain entry to the diamonds and gold discovered in the Boer republics.
Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) fought between the British and Afrikaners; British victory and post-war policies left Africans under Afrikaner control.
Murad Mamluk leader at the time of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt; defeated by French forces.
Muhammad Ali controlled Egypt following the French withdrawal; began a modernization process based on Western models, but failed to greatly change Egypt; died in 1848.
khedives descendants of Muhammad Ali and rulers of Egypt until 1952.
Suez Canal built to link the Mediterranean and Red seas; opened in 1869; British later occupied Egypt to safeguard their financial and strategic interests.
Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh Muslim thinkers in Egypt during the latter part of the 19th century; stressed the need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology and the importance of rational inquiry within Islam.
Ahmad Arabi student of Muhammad Abduh; led a revolt in 1882 against the Egyptian government; defeated when the khedive called in British aid.
Khartoum river town that was administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
Muhammad Ahmad head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from prophet Muhammad; proclaimed both British and Egyptians as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883; also known as the Mahdi.
Mahdi in Sufi belief system, a promised deliverer; also name given to Muhammad Achmad, the leader of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; began a holy war against the Egyptians and British and founded a state in the Sudan.
Khalifa Abdallahi successor of the Mahdi; defeated and killed by British General Kitchener in 189
Wafd Party Egyptian nationalist party founded after World War I; led by Sa’d Zaghlul; participated in the negotiations that led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922.
Sa’d Zaghlul leader of Egypt’s Wafd party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922.
W. E. B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey African American leaders with major impact on rising African nationalists.
pan-African organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and the African diaspora before and after World War I.
négritude literary movement among African Americans and Africans; sought to combat unfavorable stereotypes of African culture and to celebrate African achievements; influenced early African nationalist movements.
Léopold S. Senghor, Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas African and African American négritude movement writers.
Lord Cromer British advisor to the Egyptian government; his reform program benefited the elite and foreign merchants, not the mass of Egyptians.
effendi prosperous business and professional urban Egyptian families; generally favored independence.
Dinshawi incident 1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental Egyptian death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression that stimulated nationalist sentiment.
Convention Peoples Party (CCP) political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast.
Jomo Kenyatta leader of Kenyan African Union, a nonviolent nationalist party; became first president of independent Kenya in 1962.
Kenya African Union (KAU) leading nationalist party in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s.
Land Freedom Army Kenyan underground group, led by radicals from the Kenyan African Union; engage in terrorist acts against British and other opponents.
National Liberation Front (FLN) Algerian nationalist movement that launched a guerrilla war during the 1950s; gained independence for Algeria in 1962.
Secret Army Organization (OAS) Algerian settler group opposed to independence from France; gained strength in France.
Afrikaner National Party became the majority in the all-white South African legislature in 1948; worked to form the rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
apartheid policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically.
Gamal Abdul Nasser member of the Free Officers Movement who seized power in Egypt in a 1952 military coup; became leader of Egypt; formed a state-directed reforming regime; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal in 1956; most reforms were unsuccessful.
Free Officers movement military nationalist movement in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
Muslim Brotherhood Egyptian religious and nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; became an example for later fundamentalist movements in the Islamic world.
Anwar Sadat successor of Nasser as Egypt’s ruler; dismantled Nasser’s costly and failed programs; signed peace with Israel in 1973; assassinated by a Muslim fundamentalist.
Hosni Mubarak president of Egypt (served
African National Congress (ANC) South African political organization founded to defend African interests; became the ruling political party after the 1994 elections.
Walter Sisulu and Steve Biko African leaders imprisoned (Sisulu) or murdered (Biko) by the Afrikaner regime.
Nelson Mandela ANC leader imprisoned by Afrikaner regime; released in 1990 and elected president of South Africa in 1994.
F. W. de Klerk South African president (served
globalization the increasing interconnectedness of all parts of the world; opposed by many environmental and social justice groups.
multinational corporations business organizations with connections across political borders.
Created by: amygilstrap7