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Asia Terms

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Yellow River also known as the Huanghe; site of the development of sedentary agriculture in China.
Ideographs pictograph characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing.
Shang first Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bulge of the Huanghe; flourished 1600 to 1046 B.C.E.
Shi Huangdi first emperor of China; founder of Qin dynasty.
Qin dynasty (221–207 B.C.E.) founded at the end of the Warring States period.
Han dynasty succeeding the Qin ruled from 202 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
Zhou originally a vassal family of the Shang; possibly Turkic-speaking in origin; overthrew Shang and established 2nd Chinese dynasty (1122–256 B.C.E.).
Great Wall Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi.
Confucius major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century B.C.E.; sayings collected in Analects; philosophy based on the need for restoration of social order through the role of superior men.
Buddha creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for earthly things.
scholar-gentry Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
Shintoism religion of the early Japanese court; included the worship of numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world.
Polynesia islands contained in a rough triangle with its points at Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.
Yellow Turbans Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E., promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic.
Sui dynasty succeeding the Han; grew from strong rulers in northern China; reunited China.
Tang dynasty succeeding the Sui in 618 C.E.
stupas stone shrines built to house relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
Mahayana version of Buddhism popular in China; emphasized Buddha’s role as a savior.
Bodhisattvas Buddhist holy men who refused advance toward nirvana to receive prayers of the living to help them reach holiness.
Yangdi second Sui ruler; restored Confucian examination system; constructed canal system; assassinated in 618.
Li Yuan Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over the empire after the assassination of Yangdi; first Tang ruler.
Chang’an capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million larger than any contemporary world city.
Ministry of Public Rites administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty.
jinshi title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office.
pure land Buddhism emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism, popular among masses of Chinese society.
Chan Buddhism called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Zen Buddhism called Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690–705; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Wuzong Tang emperor (841–847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism.
Xuanzong leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, although he encouraged overexpansion.
Yang Guifei royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.
Zhao Kuangyin general who founded Song dynasty; took royal name of Taizu.
Liao dynasty founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China.
Khitans founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture.
Zhu Xi most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life.
neo-Confucians revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song-era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Tangut rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226.
Xi Xia kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.
Wang Anshi Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song ruler in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Jurchens founders of Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee south.
Jin kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234.
Southern Song smaller surviving dynasty (1127–1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history.
Grand Canal great canal system begun by Yangdi; joined Yellow River region to the Yangtze basin.
junks Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
flying money Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency.
footbinding male-imposed practice to mutilate women’s feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household.
Li Bo most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Taika reforms attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
Fujiwara mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
bushi regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
samurai mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
seppuku ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor.
Taira powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars.
Minamoto defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th-century Japan.
Gempei wars waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira.
bakufu military government established by the Minamoto following Gumpei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
shoguns military leaders of the bakufu.
Hojo a warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor.
Ashikaga Takuaji member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Ashikaga Shogunate replaced the Kamakura regime and ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority.
daimyos warlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
Choson earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han in 109 B.C.E.
Koguryo tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Silla Korean kingdom in southeast; became a vassal of the Tang and paid tribute; ruled Korea from 668.
Paekche independent Korean kingdom in southwestern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
Sinification extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions.
Yi dynasty (1392–1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty after Mongol invasions; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
Khmers Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by northern government at Hanoi.
Trung sisters leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 C.E.; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society.
Chams Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Nguyen southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that challenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi.
Trinh dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in south.
kuriltai meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected.
khagan title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
tumens basic fighting units of Mongol forces; made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units.
Karakorum capital of Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan.
Batu grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236.
Ogedei third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded him as Mongol khagan.
Kubilai Khan grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Dadu Mongol capital of Yuan dynasty; present-day Beijing.
Chabi influential wife of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Confucian China.
Romance of the West Chamber famous Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period.
White Lotus Society secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty.
Zhu Yuanzhang Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty.
Ming dynasty succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Zheng He Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the India Ocean.
East India Companies British and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions.
Hongwu first Ming emperor (1368–1403); drove out the Mongols and restored the position of the scholar-gentry.
Macao and Canton the only two ports in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade.
Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
Chongzhen last emperor of the Ming Dynasty; died in 1644.
Oda Nobunaga the first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573, deposed the last Ashikaga shogun; unified much of central Honshu; died in 1582.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daimyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Tokugawa Ieyasu vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.
Edo Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo; center of Tokugawa shogunate.
Deshima island port in Nagasaki Bay; the only port open to foreigners, the Dutch, after the 1640s.
School of National Learning 18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan’s unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
caravels Slender, long-hulled vessels used by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Asian sea trading network divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival; an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone with paper, porcelain, and silks.
mercantilists proponents of mercantilism; an economic theory that gave central importance to maintaining a positive balance of trade with other nations.
factories European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; used throughout the Portuguese trading empire to ensure secure landing places and commerce.
Batavia Dutch establishment on Java; created in 1620.
Dutch trading empire the Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Luzon island of the northern Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of a major Catholic missionary effort.
Captain James Cook his voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779 opened the islands to the West.
Nurhaci (1559–1626); united the Manchus in the early 17th century; defeated the Ming and established the Qing dynasty.
banner armies the forces of Nurhaci; formed cavalry units, each identified by a flag.
Qing Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.
Kangxi Qing ruler and Confucian scholar (1661–1722); promoted Sinification among the Manchus.
compradors wealthy group of merchants under the Qing; specialized in the import-export trade on China’s south coast.
Opium War fought between Britain and Qing China beginning in 1839 to protect the British trade in opium; British victory demonstrated Western superiority over China.
Lin Zexu 19th-century Chinese official charged during the 1830s with ending the opium trade in southern China; set off the events leading to the Opium War.
Taiping Rebellion massive rebellion in southern China in the 1850s and 1860s led by Hong Xinquan; sought to overthrow the Qing dynasty and Confucianism.
Hong Xiuquan leader of Taiping Rebellion; converted to Chinese form of Christianity; attacked Confucian teachings.
Zeng Guofan Qing official who successfully fended off Taiping assault on northern China; proponent of political and economic reform.
Cixi conservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion popular outburst aimed at expelling foreigners from China; put down by intervention of the Western powers.
Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925); Chinese revolutionary leader, of scholar-gentry background.
Puyi last Qing ruler; deposed in 1912.
Russo-Japanese War 1904; Russian expansion into northern China leads to war; rapid Japanese victory followed.
terakoya commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
Dutch Studies studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18h century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
Matthew Perry American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
Diet Japanese parliament established as part of the constitution of 1889; able to advise government but not control it.
zaibatsu huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s.
Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) fought in Korea between Japan and Qing China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.
Yellow peril Western term for perceived threat from Japanese imperialism.
collectivization creation of large, state-run farms replacing individual holdings; allowed mechanization of agriculture and more efficient control over peasants.
Yuan Shikai warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China.
May Fourth Movement acceptance at Versailles of Japanese gains in China during World War I led to demonstrations and the beginning of a movement to create a liberal democracy.
Li Dazhao Chinese Marxist intellectual; rejected traditional views and instead saw peasants as the vanguard of socialist revolution; influenced Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong communist leader who advocated the role of the peasantry in revolution; led the communists to victory and ruled China from 1949 to 1976.
Guomindang (National Party) founded by Sun Yatsen in 1919; main support from urban businesspeople and merchants; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
Whampoa Military Academy Guomindang military academy founded in 1924 with Soviet support; its first director was Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang Kai-shek leader of the Guomindang from 1925; contested with the communists for control of China until defeated in 1949.
Long March communist retreat under Guomindang pressure in 1934; shifted center of communist power to Shanxi province.
Corazon Aquino president of Philippines (r. 1986–1992).
religious revivalism an approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life.
primary products food or industrial crops with a high demand in industrialized economies; their prices tend to fluctuate widely.
neocolonial economy industrialized nation’s continued dominance of the world economy, despite the absence of direct political control over the non-industrialized world.
Green Revolution agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
Pacific Rim region Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan;rapid economic growth, expanding exports, and industrialization; influenced byChinese/Confucian values; reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.
Taiwan island off the Chinese mainland that became the refuge for Chiang Kai-shek’s Guomindang regime; maintained independence with U.S. support; rapidly industrialized after the 1950s.
Liberal Democratic Party moderate political party that monopolized Japanese governments from 1955 into the 1990s.
Republic of Korea southern half of Korea, occupied by the United States after World War II; developed parliamentary institutions under authoritarian rulers; underwent major industrial and economic growth after the 1950s.
People’s Democratic Republic of Korea northern half of Korea, dominated by U.S.S.R. after World War II; formed a communist dictatorship under Kim Il-Song; attacked South Korea to begin the Korean War.
Korean War fought from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea and its Soviet and Chinese allies and South Korea and United Nations’ forces directed by the United States; ended in stalemate.
Hong Kong British colony in China; became a major commercial and industrial center; returned to China in 1997.
Hyundai major Korean industrial giant; typical of firms producing Korea’s economic miracle.
Chiang Ching-kuo son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to reduce gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders.
Lee Kuan Yew authoritarian ruler of Singapore for three decades from 1959; presided over major economic development.
People’s Republic of China communist China; founded in 1949 by Mao Zedong.
Lin Bao one of Mao Zedong’s military associates.
party cadres basis of China’s communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels.
People’s Liberation Army military and dominant arm of the communist structure in China.
Mass Line economic policy of Mao Zedong inaugurated in 1955; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives that then became farming collectives in 1956; peasants lost land gained a few years earlier.
Great Leap Forward economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed small-scale industrialization projects integrated into peasant communities; led to economic disaster and ended in 1960.
pragmatists Chinese communist politicians determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed the Great Leap Forward.
Zhou Enlai premier of China from 1954; notable as perhaps the most cosmopolitan and moderate of the inner circle Communist leaders.
Liu Shaoqui Chinese communist pragmatist; with Deng Xiaoping, came to power in 1959 after Mao was replaced; purged in 1966 as Mao returned to power.
Deng Xiaoping one of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; emerged as China’s most influential leader in the early 1980s.
Jiang Qing wife of Mao Zedong; one of the Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported the Cultural Revolution; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
Cultural Revolution initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to restore his dominance over the pragmatists; disgraced and even killed bureaucrats and intellectuals; called off in 1968.
Red Guard student brigades active during the Cultural Revolution in support of Mao Zedong’s policies.
Gang of Four Jiang Qing and her allies who opposed the pragmatists after the death of Mao Zedong; arrested and sentenced to life in prison.
Tayson Rebellion peasant revolution in southern Vietnam during the 1770s; toppled the Nguyen and the Trinh dynasties.
Nguyen Anh (Gia Long) with French support, unified Vietnam under the Nguyen dynasty in 1802, with the capital at Hue.
Minh Mang second ruler of united Vietnam (1802–1841); emphasized Confucianism and persecuted Catholics.
Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD) middle-class revolutionary organization during the 1920s; committed to the violent overthrow of French colonialism; crushed by the French.
Communist Party of Vietnam the primary nationalist party after the defeat of the VNQDD in 1929; led from 1920s by Ho Chi Minh.
Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc) shifted to a revolution based on the peasantry in the 1930s; presided over the defeat of France in 1954 and the unsuccessful U.S. intervention in Vietnam.
Viet Minh Communist Vietnamese movement; fought the Japanese during Word War II and the French afterward.
Vo Nguyen Giap military commander of the Viet Minh and the victor at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
Dien Bien Phu most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem became president of South Vietnam with U.S. support in the 1950s; overthrown by the military with U.S. approval.
Viet Cong the communist guerrilla movement in South Vietnam during the Vietnamese war.
Mindanao island of the southern Philippines; a Muslim area able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Francis Xavier Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan.
Created by: amygilstrap7