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AP World Chapter 30

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
cubist movement headed by Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes.
Benito Mussolini Fascist premier of Italy (r. 1922–1943); formed the fascio di combattimento in 1919.
fascism political ideology that became predominant in Italy under Benito Mussolini during the 1920s; attacked the weakness of democracy and the corruption and class conflict of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs.
syndicalism organization of industrial workers to control the means of production and distribution.
Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920 civil war; challenged Porfirio Díaz in 1910 and initiated a revolution after losing fraudulent elections.
Porfirio Diaz one of Juarez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government.
Francisco Madero moderate democratic Mexican reformer; assassinated in 1913.
Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary leader in northern Mexico after 1910.
Emiliano Zapata Mexican revolutionary commander of a guerrilla movement centered at Morelos; demanded sweeping land reform.
Victoriano Herta came to power in Mexico, 1913; forced from power 1914; tried to install Díaz-style government.
Alvaro Obregón Mexican general; emerged as leader of government in 1915; later elected president.
Mexican Constitution of 1917 promised land and educational reform, limited foreign ownership, guaranteed rights for workers, and restricted clerical education and property ownership; never fully implemented.
Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco Mexican artists working after the Mexican Revolution; famous for wall murals on public buildings that mixed images of the Indian past with Christian and communist themes.
Cristeros conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; a reaction against secularism.
Aleksander Kerensky liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; attempted development of parliamentary rule, but supported continuance of the war against Germany.
Red Army built up under the leadership of Leon Trotsky; its victories secured communist power after the early years of turmoil following the Russian Revolution.
New Economic Policy (NEP) initiated in 1921 by Lenin; combined the state establishing basic economic policies with individual initiative; allowed food production to recover.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) Russian federal system controlled by the Communist Party established in 1923.
Supreme Soviet communist-controlled parliament of the U.S.S.R.
Joseph Stalin Lenin’s successor as leader of the U.S.S.R.; strong nationalist view of communism; crushed opposition to his predominance; ruled U.S.S.R. until his death in 1953.
Comintern Communist International, an organization under dominance of the U.S.S.R.; designed to encourage the spread of communism in the rest of the world.
collectivization creation of large, state-run farms replacing individual holdings; allowed mechanization of agriculture and more efficient control over peasants.
Yuan Shikai warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China.
May Fourth Movement acceptance at Versailles of Japanese gains in China during World War I led to demonstrations and the beginning of a movement to create a liberal democracy.
Li Dazhao Chinese Marxist intellectual; rejected traditional views and instead saw peasants as the vanguard of socialist revolution; influenced Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong communist leader who advocated the role of the peasantry in revolution; led the communists to victory and ruled China from 1949 to 1976.
Guomindang (National Party) founded by Sun Yatsen in 1919; main support from urban businesspeople and merchants; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
Whampoa Military Academy Guomindang military academy founded in 1924 with Soviet support; its first director was Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang Kai-shek leader of the Guomindang from 1925; contested with the communists for control of China until defeated in 1949.
Long March communist retreat under Guomindang pressure in 1934; shifted center of communist power to Shanxi province.
Great Depression international economic crisis following World War I; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929.
Popular Front alliance of French socialist, liberal, and communist parties; won election in 1936; blocked from reform efforts by conservative opposition; fell in 1938.
New Deal President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to combat economic depression.
totalitarian state a 20th-century form of government that exercised direct control over all aspects of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and other communist states.
Spanish Civil War civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed.
corporatism conservative political movement emphasizing the organic nature of society, with the state as mediator between different groups.
Lázaro Cárdenas Mexican president (1934–1940); responsible for large land redistribution to create communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Getúlio Vargas became president of Brazil following a contested election of 1929; led an authoritarian state; died in 1954.
Juan Perón dominant authoritarian and populist leader in Argentina from the mid-1940s; driven into exile in 1955; returned and elected president in 1973; died in 1974.
five-year plans Stalin’s plans to hasten industrialization of U.S.S.R.; constructed massive factories; led to state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.
socialist realism attempt within U.S.S.R. to relate formal culture to the masses; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.
Politburo executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members
Created by: amygilstrap7