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AP World Chapter 29

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Archduke Ferdinand Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne assassinated at Sarajevo in 1914; precipitated World War I.
Sarajevo administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian empire; assassination there of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I
Western Front war line between Belgium and Switzerland during World War I; featured trench warfare and massive casualties among combatants.
Nicholas II Russian tsar; (r. 1894–1917); executed 1918.
Gallipoli World War I battle, 1915; unsuccessful attempt in defense of the Dardanelles.
Armenian genocide launched by Young Turk leaders in 1915; claimed up to one million lives.
Eastern Front war zone from the Baltic to the Balkans where Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, and Balkan nations fought.
Adolph Hitler Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Georges Clemenceau French premier desiring harsher peace terms for Germans.
David Lloyd George British prime minister; attempted to mediate at peace conference between Clemenceau and Wilson.
self-determination right of people in a region to determine whether to be independent.
League of Nations international organization of nations created after World War I; designed to preserve world peace; the United States never joined.
National Congress Party political party that grew from regional associations of Western-educated Indians in 1885; dominated by elites; was the principal party throughout the colonial period and after independence.
B. G. Tilak first populist leader in India; believed that Indian nationalism should be grounded in the Hindu majority; exiled by the British.
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909) provided Indians with expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and national legislative councils.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (1919) increased national powers of Indian legislators and placed provincial administrations under ministries controlled by Indian-elected legislatures.
Rowlatt Act (1919) placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights; undercut impact of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Mohandas Gandhi Western-educated Indian lawyer and nationalist politician with many attributes of an Indian holy man; stressed nonviolent tactics and headed the movement for Indian independence.
satyagraha “truth force”; Gandhi’s policy of nonviolent opposition to British rule.
Lord Cromer British advisor to the Egyptian government; his reform program benefited the elite and foreign merchants, not the mass of Egyptians.
effendi prosperous business and professional urban Egyptian families; generally favored independence.
Dinshawi incident 1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental Egyptian death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression that stimulated nationalist sentiment.
Ataturk also known as Mustafa Kemal; president of Turkey, (r. 1923–1938); responsible for Westernization of Turkey.
Hussein sherif of Mecca; supports British in World War I for promise of independence following the war.
mandates governments entrusted to victorious European World War I nations over the colonies of the defeated powers.
Zionism European Jewish movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine.
Balfour Declaration (1917) British promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine.
Leon Pinsker European Zionist who believed that Jewish acceptance in Christian nations was impossible; argued for a return to the Jewish Holy Land.
Theodor Hertzl Austrian Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; was unsympathetic to Arabs and promoted Jewish immigration into Palestine to form a Jewish state.
Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935); French Jew, falsely accused of treason in 1894; acquitted 1906; his false conviction fueled Zionism.
World Zionist Organization founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state.
Wafd Party Egyptian nationalist party founded after World War I; led by Sa’d Zaghlul; participated in the negotiations that led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922.
Sa’d Zaghlul leader of Egypt’s Wafd party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922.
W. E. B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey African American leaders with major impact on rising African nationalists.
pan-African organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and the African diaspora before and after World War I.
négritude literary movement among African Americans and Africans; sought to combat unfavorable stereotypes of African culture and to celebrate African achievements; influenced early African nationalist movements.
Léopold S. Senghor, Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas African and African American négritude movement writers.
Created by: amygilstrap7