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AP World Chapter 27

Ap World History - Summerville High School

ayan the wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.
Selim III Ottoman sultan (1789–1807); attempted to improve administrative efficiency and build a new army and navy; assassinated by Janissaries.
Mahmud II 19th-century Ottoman sultan who built a private, professional army; crushed the Janissaries and initiated reforms on Western precedents.
Tanzimat reforms Western-style reforms within the Ottoman empire between 1839 and 1876; included a European-influenced constitution in 1876.
Abdul Hamid Ottoman sultan (1878–1908) who tried to return to despotic absolutism; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties.
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress Young Turks; intellectuals and political agitators seeking the return of the 1876 constitution; gained power through a coup in 1908.
Murad Mamluk leader at the time of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt; defeated by French forces.
Muhammad Ali controlled Egypt following the French withdrawal; began a modernization process based on Western models, but failed to greatly change Egypt; died in 1848.
khedives descendants of Muhammad Ali and rulers of Egypt until 1952.
Suez Canal built to link the Mediterranean and Red seas; opened in 1869; British later occupied Egypt to safeguard their financial and strategic interests.
Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh Muslim thinkers in Egypt during the latter part of the 19th century; stressed the need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology and the importance of rational inquiry within Islam.
Ahmad Arabi student of Muhammad Abduh; led a revolt in 1882 against the Egyptian government; defeated when the khedive called in British aid.
Khartoum river town that was administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
Muhammad Ahmad head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from prophet Muhammad; proclaimed both British and Egyptians as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883; also known as the Mahdi.
Mahdi in Sufi belief system, a promised deliverer; also name given to Muhammad Achmad, the leader of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; began a holy war against the Egyptians and British and founded a state in the Sudan.
Khalifa Abdallahi successor of the Mahdi; defeated and killed by British General Kitchener in 1898.
Nurhaci (1559–1626); united the Manchus in the early 17th century; defeated the Ming and established the Qing dynasty.
banner armies the forces of Nurhaci; formed cavalry units, each identified by a flag.
Qing Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.
Kangxi Qing ruler and Confucian scholar (1661–1722); promoted Sinification among the Manchus.
compradors wealthy group of merchants under the Qing; specialized in the import-export trade on China’s south coast.
Opium War fought between Britain and Qing China beginning in 1839 to protect the British trade in opium; British victory demonstrated Western superiority over China.
Lin Zexu 19th-century Chinese official charged during the 1830s with ending the opium trade in southern China; set off the events leading to the Opium War.
Taiping Rebellion massive rebellion in southern China in the 1850s and 1860s led by Hong Xinquan; sought to overthrow the Qing dynasty and Confucianism.
Hong Xiuquan leader of Taiping Rebellion; converted to Chinese form of Christianity; attacked Confucian teachings.
Zeng Guofan Qing official who successfully fended off Taiping assault on northern China; proponent of political and economic reform.
Cixi conservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion popular outburst aimed at expelling foreigners from China; put down by intervention of the Western powers.
Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925); Chinese revolutionary leader, of scholar-gentry background.
Puyi last Qing ruler; deposed in 1912.
Created by: amygilstrap7