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AP World Chapter 26

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Toussaint L’Overture leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Father Miguel de Hidalgo Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories, he was captured and executed.
Augustín de Iturbide conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
Simon Bolívar Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
Gran Colombia existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.
José de San Martín leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.
João VI Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese Empire.
Pedro I son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
Andrés Santa Cruz mestizo general, would-be leader of a united Peru and Bolivia; the union never took place.
caudillos leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
centralists Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
federalists Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.
Juan Manuel de Rosas federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Monroe Doctrine United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
guano bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
positivism a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Auguste Comte French philosopher (19th century); founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
manifest destiny belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) ratified by the United States; Mexico lost one-half of its national territory.
Mexican-American War (1846–1848); American expansion leads to dispute over California and Texas.
Benito Juárez Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
La Reforma name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.
Maximilian von Habsburg Austrian archduke proclaimed Emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal, he was executed in 1867.
Argentine Republic replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
fazendas coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
cientificos advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.
Spanish-American War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.
Panama Canal the United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panama isthmus.
Created by: amygilstrap7