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AP World Chapter 24

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
age of revolution period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution and ending with the Revolutions of 1848.
population revolution huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization.
proto-industrialization preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.
American Revolution rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
French Revolution overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon’s French Empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Louis XVI Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.
guillotine introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.
nationalism political viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often allied with other “isms”; urged importance of national unity; valued collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
Napoleon Bonaparte army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815.
Congress of Vienna met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.
conservative political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church.
liberal political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
radical followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis
Greek Revolution rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
Reform Bill of 1832 British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class.
Chartist movement attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands incorporated into a series of petitions or charters.
Louis Pasteur discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.
American Civil War (1861–1865) fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
transformismo political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals.
social question issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
socialism political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
Karl Marx German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
revisionism socialist thought that disagreed with Marx’s formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
feminist movements sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
mass leisure culture an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
Charles Darwin biologist who developed the theory of evolution of the species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Triple Alliance alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Triple Entente agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Balkan nationalism movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.
Created by: amygilstrap7