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22. Muslim Empires

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Ottoman dynasty dynasty founded by Turkic-speaking people who advanced into Asia Minor during the 14th century; the most powerful Islamic empire in history; lasted until the early twentieth century.
Safavid dynasty founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi’a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until 1722.
Mughal empire established by Turkic invaders in 1526; endured until the mid-19th century.
Ottomans Turkic-speaking people who advanced into Asia Minor during the 14th century; established an empire in the Middle East, north Africa, and eastern Europe that lasted until after Word War I.
Mehmed II “the Conqueror”; Ottoman sultan; captured Constantinople, 1453, and destroyed the Byzantine Empire.
Janissaries conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions; became an important political influence after the 15th century.
vizier head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan.
Sail al-Din eponymous founder of the Safavids, Sufi mystic; leader of the Red Heads.
Red Heads name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear.
Ismâ’il Safavid leader; conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah.
Chaldiran an important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of the Safavid Shi’a state.
Abbas I, the Great Safavid shah (1587–1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology.
imams Shi’a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali’s successors.
mullahs religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert all subjects to Shi’ism.
Isfahan Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.
Nadir Khan Afshar emerged following fall of Safavids; proclaims himself shah, 1736.
Babur Turkic leader who founded the Mughal dynasty; died in 1530.
Humayn son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540 but returned to restore the dynasty in 1556.
Akbar son and successor of Humayn; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty; followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.
Din-i-Ilahi religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.
Aurangzeb son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire’s resources; died in 1707.
Taj Mahal mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan; most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India.
Nur Jahan wife of ruler Jahangir who amassed power at the Mughal court and created a faction ruling the empire during the later years of his reign.
Mumtaz Mahal wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal.
Marattas people of western India; challenged Mughal rule under Aurangzeb.
Sikhs Indian sect, beginning as a synthesis of Hindu and Muslim faiths; pushed to opposition to Muslim and Mughul rule.
Created by: amygilstrap7