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12. EArly Americas

Ap World History - Summerville High School

Indians misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous New World peoples; still used to describe Native Americans.
Toltec culture succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strong militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
Topiltzin religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula.
Quetzalcoatl Toltec deity; feathered serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god.
Tenochtitlan founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power.
Tlaloc major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain.
Huitcilopochtli Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Nezhualcoyotl leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
chinampas beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create “floating islands”; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs.
pochteca merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long distance trade in luxury items.
calpulli clans in Aztec society; evolved into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Pachacuti Inca ruler (1438–1471); began the military campaigns that marked the creation of an Inca empire.
ayllus households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from a common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
Twantinsuyu Inca word for their empire; region from Colombia to Chile and eastwardinto Bolivia and Argentina.
split inheritance Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca’s mummy.
Temple of the Sun Inca religious center at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
tambos way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
mita labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Inca socialism an interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
yanas a class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or the Inca nobility.
quipu system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
Created by: amygilstrap7