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11. Middle Ages

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Middle Ages the period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century.
Vikings seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries.
manorialism System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
serfs peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system.
moldboard Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils ; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
three-field system system of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included on-third in spring grains, one-third fallow.
Clovis Early Fankish king; converted to Christianity circa 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Carolingians royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in the 10th century.
Charles Martel 686-741 Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charlemagne Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany circa 800.
Holy Roman emperors Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
vassals members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Magna Carta Great charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
parliaments bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
three estates the three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Hundred Years War conflict between England and France (1337–1453); fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states.
Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from Muslims.
Gregory VII 11th-century pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
investiture the practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Peter Abelard Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Thomas Aquinas creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
scholasticism dominant medieval philosophical approach; so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems.
gothic an architectural style that developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Hanseatic League an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
guilds associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in cities.
Black Death bubonic plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe’s population; affected social structure.
Created by: amygilstrap7