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7. Islam Begins

Ap World History - Summerville High School

bedouin nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula with a culture based on herding camels and goats; early converts to Islam.
shaykhs leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually possessed large herds, several wives, and many children.
Mecca City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded by Umayyad cland of Quarysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of chief religious pilgrimage point in Islam.
Umayyad clan of the Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan established a dynasty under this title as rulers of Islam, 661 to 750.
Quaraysh tribe of bedouins that controlled Mecca in the 7th century C.E.
Ka’ba Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among Bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Medina aka Yathrib; town northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became a refuge for Muhammad following light from Mecca (Hijra)..
Muhammad Prophet of Islam; born c570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632.
Khadijah First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader.
Qur’an Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam.
Ali cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'a.
umma community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity.
five pillars the obligatory religious duties for all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj.
Ramadan Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset.
hajj a Muslim’s pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship Allah at the Ka’ba.
caliph The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
Ridda wars wars following Muhammad’s death; resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored the unity of Islam.
jihads Struggles; often used for wars in defense of the faith, but also as a term to indicate personal quests for religious understanding.
Copts Christian sects of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.
Uthman third caliph and member of the Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off a civil war within Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
Sunnis Political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads.
Shi’a aka Shi'ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali’s.
Damascus Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad caliphate.
hadiths “traditions” of the prophet Muhammad; added to the Qur’an; form the essential writings of Islam.
Abbasid dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750; their capital was at Baghdad.
Baghdad Abbasid capital, close to the old Persian capital of Ctesiphon.
wazir chief administrative official under the Abbasids caliphate, initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire.
dhows Arab sailing vessels; equipped with lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.
ayan the wealthy, landed elite that emerged under the Abbasids.
Allah The Arab term for the high god in pre-Islamic Arabia that was adopted by the followers of Muhammad and the Islamic faith.
Sasanian empires The dynasty that ruled Persia (contemporary Iran) in the centuries before the rise of Muhammad and teh early decades of Islamic expansion.
Abu Bakr The first caliph or leader of the Muslim faithful elected after Muhammad's death in 632. Renown for his knowledge of the nomadic tribes who then dominated the Islamic community.
Nestorians A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
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