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5 Classical Europe

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Cyrus the Great (c. 576 or 590–529 B.C.E.); founded Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires.
Zoroastrianism Persian religion that saw material existence as a battle between the forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; a last judgment decided the eternal fate of each person.
Olympic Games one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations.
Pericles Athenian political leader during 5th century B.C.E.; guided development of Athenian Empire.
Peloponnesian War war from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for domination in Greece; the Spartans won but failed to achieve political unification in Greece.
Philip of Macedonia ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; conquered Greece.
Hellenistic culture associated with the spread of Greek influence and intermixture with other cultures as a result of Macedonian conquests.
Roman Republic the balanced political system of Rome from circa 510 to 47 B.C.E.; featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and popular assemblies.
Punic Wars three wars (264–146 B.C.E.) between Rome and the Carthaginians; saw the transformation of Rome from a land to a sea power.
Carthage founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic wars with Rome for Mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the Romans.
Hannibal Carthaginian general during the second Punic War; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome.
Julius Caesar general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in B.C.E. by conservative senators.
Caesar Augustus (63 B.C.E.–14 C.E.) name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
Diocletian Roman emperor from 284 to 305 C.E.; restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection.
Constantine Roman emperor from 312 to 337 C.E.; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually.
Polis city-state form of government typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Direct democracy literally, rule of the people—in Athens, it meant all free male citizens; all decisions emanated from the popular assembly without intermediation of elected representatives.
Senate assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constitution.
Consuls two chief executives of the Roman republic; elected annually by the assembly dominated by the aristocracy.
Aristotle Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander; taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in material world.
Cicero conservative senator and Stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day.
Stoics Hellenistic philosophers; they emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery.
Socrates Athenian philosopher of later 5th century B.C.E.; tutor of Plato; urged rational reflection in moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young.
Sophocles Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex.
Iliad and Odyssey Greek epic poems attributed to Homer; defined relations of gods and humans that shaped Greek mythology.
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian three distinct styles of Hellenic architecture; listed in order of increasing ornate quality.
Created by: amygilstrap7