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4. Classical India

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Buddha creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for earthly things, son of local ruler in Himalayas
Alexander the Great successor of Philip II; successfully conquered the Persian empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
Himalayas mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent.Site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics
monsoons seasonal winds crossing Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia; during summer bring rains.
Sanskrit the classical and sacred Indian language.
Varnas clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes—brahmans (priests), warriors,merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was group of socially untouchable Dasas.
Indra chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior.
Chandragupta Maurya founder of the Mauryan dynasty, the first empire in the Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization. r.322-298 BCE
Mauryan dynasty established in Indian subcontinent in 4th century B.C.E. following the invasion of Alexander the Great.
Ashoka (r. 273-232 B.C.E) grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; extended conquests of the dynasty; converted to Buddhism and sponsored its spread throughout his empire.
dharma the caste position and career determined by a person’s birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one’s social position and perform their occupation to the best of one’s ability in order to have a better situation in the next life.
Guptas dynasty that succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century C.E., which included all but southern Indian regions; less centralized than Mauryan Empire.
gurus originally referred to as brahmans, who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas.
Vishnu the brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped.
Shiva Hindu god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
reincarnation the successive rebirth of the soul according to merits earned in previous lives.
nirvana the Buddhist state of enlightenment; a state of tranquility.
stupas stone shrines built to house relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
scholar-gentry Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
untouchables low social caste in Hindu culture; performed tasks that were considered polluting - street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning
Created by: amygilstrap7