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2. Early Civs

Ap World History - Summerville High School

City-state a form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilization; consisted of agricultural hinterland ruled by an urban based king.
Babylonians unified all of Mesopotamia circa 1800 B.C.E.; collapsed due to foreign invasion circa 1600 B.C.E.
Hammurabi the most important Babylonian ruler; responsible for codification of the law.
Kush African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile circa 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
Indus River river sources in Himalayas to mouth of Arabian Sea; location of Harappan civilization.
Harappa along with Mohenjodaro, major urban complex of the Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern.
Aryans Indo-European nomadic, warlike, pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society.
Vedas Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century B.C.E.
Mahabharata Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral form.
Ramayana one of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife, Sita; written 4th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
Upanishads later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority.
Yellow River also known as the Huanghe; site of the development of sedentary agriculture in China.
Ideographs pictograph characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing.
Shang first Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bulge of the Huanghe; flourished 1600 to 1046 B.C.
Olmecs people of a cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
Chavín de Huanter Chavín culture appeared in the highlands of the Andes between 1800 and 1200 B.C.E.; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest ceremonial center was Chavín de Huantar; characterized by artistic motifs.
Phoenicians seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
Monotheism the exclusive worship of one god; introduced by Jews into Middle Eastern civilization.
Created by: amygilstrap7