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Latin America Review

Ap World History - Summerville High School

TermDefinition
Civilization societies with reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of nonfarming elites, along with merchant and manufacturing groups.
Olmecs people of a cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems.
Chavín de Huanter culture appeared in the highlands of the Andes between 1800 and 1200 B.C.E.; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest ceremonial center was characterized by artistic motifs.
Teotihuacan site of classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population of as many as 200,000.
Maya classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan; extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
Inca group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create an empire incorporating various Andean cultures; term also used for leader of empire.
world economy created by Europeans during the late 16th century; based on control of the seas; established an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products.
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator in the service of Aragon and Castile; sailed west to find a route to India and instead came upon the Americas in 1492.
East India Companies British and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions.
core nations nations, usually European, that profited from the world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services; exported manufactured goods and imported raw materials.
mercantilism the colonial economic policy, by which a colonizing nation must import only from its own colonies, but sell exports as widely as possible.
mestizos people of mixed European and Native American heritage.
Vasco de Balboa (1475–1517), Spanish adventurer; explored Central America.
Francisco Pizarro (1478–1541) Spanish explorer; arrived in the Americas in 1502; joined Balboa in Panama, then successfully attacked the Inca Empire.
New France French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the kingdom of Spain; initiated exploration of the New World.
Hispaniola first island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; first settled by Columbus on his second voyage
encomienda grant of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Latin America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
encomendero the holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay tribute or provide labor; responsible for their integration into the church.
Bartolomé de las Casas Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of Native American population, opposed forced labor, and advocated Indian rights.
Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico in 1519; defeated Aztec empire and established Spanish colonial rule.
Moctezuma II last independent Aztec ruler; killed during Cortés’s conquest.
Mexico City capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Tenochtitlan
New Spain :Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system.
Francisco Vácquez de Coronado led Spanish expedition into the southwestern United States in search of gold.
Pedro de Valdivia Spanish conqueror of Araucanian Indians of Chile; established city of Santiago in 1541.
mita forced labor system replacing Indian slaves and encomienda workers; used to mobilize labor for mines and other projects.
Potosí largest New World silver mine; located in Bolivia.
Huancavelica greatest mercury deposit in South America; used in American silver production.
haciendas rural agricultural and herding estates; produced goods for consumers in America; basis for wealth and power of the local aristocracy.
consulado merchant guild of Seville with a virtual monopoly over goods shipped to Spanish America; handled much of the silver shipped in return.
galleons large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis of convoy system used for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession; in the New World, Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain.
letrados university-trained lawyers from Spain; basic personnel of the Spanish colonial bureaucratic system.
Recopilación body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish New World possessions; bases of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies.
viceroyalties major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.
viceroys senior government officials in Spanish America; ruled as direct representatives of the king over the principal administrative units or viceroyalties
audiencia royal courts of appeals established in Spanish New World colonies; staffed by professional magistrates who made and applied laws.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 17th-century author, poet, and musician of New Spain; gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Pedro Alvares Cabral Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; landed in Brazil in 1500.
captaincies areas along the Brazilian coast granted to Portuguese nobles for colonial development.
Paulistas backwoodsmen from São Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century
Minas Gerais Brazilian region where gold was discovered in 1695; a gold rush followed.
Rio de Janeiro Brazilian port used for mines of Minas Gerais; became capital in 1763.
sociedad de castas Spanish American social system based on racial origins; Europeans on top, mixed races in the middle, Indians and African slaves at the bottom.
peninsulares: Spanish-born residents of the New World.
Creoles people of European ancestry born in Spanish New World colonies; dominated local economies; ranked socially below peninsulares.
amigos del país clubs and associations dedicated to reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvement rather than political reform.
War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713); wide-ranging war fought between European nations; resulted in the installation of Philip of Anjou as king of Spain.
Charles III Spanish monarch (1759–1788); instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
José de Galvez Spanish Minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from the upper colonial bureaucracy; created intendants for local government.
Marquis of Pombal Prime Minister of Portugal (1755–1776); strengthened royal authority in Brazil, expelled the Jesuits, enacted fiscal reforms, and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Comunero Revolt a popular revolt against Spanish rule in New Granada in 1781; suppressed as a result of government concessions and divisions among rebels.
Tupac Amaru II Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many in the lower social classes; revolt failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution
Toussaint L’Overture leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Father Miguel de Hidalgo: Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories, he was captured and executed.
Augustín de Iturbide conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
Simon Bolívar Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
Gran Colombia existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.
José de San Martín : leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.
João VI Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese Empire.
Pedro I son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
Andrés Santa Cruz mestizo general, would-be leader of a united Peru and Bolivia; the union never took place.
caudillos leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
centralists Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
federalists Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.
Juan Manuel de Rosas federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Monroe Doctrine: United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
guano bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
positivism a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Auguste Comte French philosopher (19th century); founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
manifest destiny belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) ratified by the United States; Mexico lost one-half of its national territory.
Mexican-American War (1846–1848); American expansion leads to dispute over California and Texas.
Benito Juárez Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
La Reforma name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.
Maximilian von Habsburg Austrian archduke proclaimed Emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal, he was executed in 1867.
Argentine Republic replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation
fazendas coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
cientificos advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.
Spanish-American War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean
Panama Canal the United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panama isthmus.
Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920 civil war; challenged Porfirio Díaz in 1910 and initiated a revolution after losing fraudulent elections.
Porfirio Diaz one of Juarez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government.
Francisco Madero moderate democratic Mexican reformer; assassinated in 1913
Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary leader in northern Mexico after 1910.
Emiliano Zapata Mexican revolutionary commander of a guerrilla movement centered at Morelos; demanded sweeping land reform.
Victoriano Herta came to power in Mexico, 1913; forced from power 1914; tried to install Díaz-style government.
Alvaro Obregón Mexican general; emerged as leader of government in 1915; later elected president.
Mexican Constitution of 1917 : promised land and educational reform, limited foreign ownership, guaranteed rights for workers, and restricted clerical education and property ownership; never fully implemented.
Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco Mexican artists working after the Mexican Revolution; famous for wall murals on public buildings that mixed images of the Indian past with Christian and communist themes.
Cristeros conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; a reaction against secularism.
Party of Institutionalized Revolution (PRI): inclusive Mexican political party developing from the 1920s; ruled for the rest of the 20th century.
Zapatistas Mexican guerilla movement; named after revolutionary Emiliano Zapata.
Juan José Arevalo reformist president of Guatemala elected in 1944; his programs led to conflict with foreign interests.
United Fruit Company most important foreign company in Guatemala; 1993 nationalization effort of some of its land holdings caused a U.S. reaction.
Fulgencio Batista authoritarian ruler of Cuba (1934–1944).
Fidel Castro revolutionary leader who replaced Batista in 1958; reformed Cuban society with socialist measures; supported economically and politically by the Soviet Union until its collapse.
Ernesto “Che” Guevara Argentinian revolutionary; worked with Fidel Castro in Cuba.
liberation theology combination of Roman Catholic and socialist principles aiming to improve the lives of the poor.
Salvador Allende Chilean socialist president; overthrown by a military coup in 1973.
Sandinista party Nicaraguan party; removed by power in 1990 elections, under U.S. influence. Named for Augusto Sandino.
banana republics conservative, often dictatorial, Latin American governments friendly to the U.S.; exported tropical products.
Augusto Sandino led guerilla resistance movement against U.S. occupation forces in Nicaragua; assassinated by Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934; became national hero and symbol of resistance to U.S. influence in Central America.
Good Neighbor Policy introduced by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 to deal fairly, without intervention, with Latin American states.
Alliance for Progress 1961 U.S. program for economic development of Latin America.
Indians misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous New World peoples; still used to describe Native Americans.
Toltec culture succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strong militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
Topiltzin religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula.
Quetzalcoatl Toltec deity; feathered serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god.
Tenochtitlan founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power.
Tlaloc major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain.
Huitcilopochtli Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Nezhualcoyotl leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
chinampas beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create “floating islands”; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs.
pochteca merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long distance trade in luxury items.
calpulli clans in Aztec society; evolved into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Pachacuti Inca ruler (1438–1471); began the military campaigns that marked the creation of an Inca empire.
ayllus households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from a common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
Twantinsuyu Inca word for their empire; region from Colombia to Chile and eastward into Bolivia and Argentina.
split inheritance Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca’s mummy.
Temple of the Sun Inca religious center at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
tambos way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
mita labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Inca socialism an interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
yanas a class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or the Inca nobility.
quipu system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
Lázaro Cárdenas Mexican president (1934–1940); responsible for large land redistribution to create communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Getúlio Vargas became president of Brazil following a contested election of 1929; led an authoritarian state; died in 1954.
Juan Perón dominant authoritarian and populist leader in Argentina from the mid-1940s; driven into exile in 1955; returned and elected president in 1973; died in 1974.
Created by: amygilstrap7