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Ch. 18.1 Review

Unrest and Turmoil in France

What was the financial situation like for France on the eve of the Revolution? 1. crop failures lead to rising food prices 2. unemployment due to a slow down in manufacturing 3. govt. spending $ on wars, luxuries, and American Revolution
What was Louis XVI's plan to solve the financial crisis? to solve the financial crisis by raising taxes on both the 1st and 2nd estate
What was the Estate General? the French Parliament that was composed of representatives from the 3 orders of the French Society (3 estates)
Keep in mind that this meeting was called with the intention of raising taxes on the 1st and 2nd estates. How would they have reacted to this? they would not have liked to pay taxes
The Estates General met in May of 1789. It had not met since 1614. How many years had passed since the last meeting? Why do you think the kings had not called meetings for so long? 175 years; because the govt. is an absolute monarchy, which gives all the power to the king to make the decisions
The 3rd estate formed a group known as the _____ and signed an oath deemed the Tennis Court Oath. Why were they forced to meet in an indoor tennis court? What did they promise to do? National Assembly; On June 20, they arrived at the meeting place, only to find the doors locked. They moved to a nearby indoor tennis court and swore they would continue to meet until they had produced a French Constitution.
What did rioters do in order to protect the N.A. from the threats of the king? What did this event, known as the trigger of the revolution, signify about the power of the king? a mob of Parisians(people who lived in Paris) stormed the Bastille( an armory/prison) and dismantled it. Louis XVI now knew he could not trust the royal troops. Royal authority had collapsed and the king was no longer in control.
Name 2 things the N.A. (3rd estate) did to destroy the Old Regime. destroyed the relics of feudalism and voted to abolish the rights of the landlords, as well as the financial privileges of the nobles and clergy
On August 4, 1789, what document did the N.A. draft and what was its purpose? The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen; to create equal rights and freedom for all men, access to the public office on talent, and an end to the exemptions from taxes. All citizens had the right to take part in making the laws.
Of the ideals that the document proclaimed, which one do you think would be the most important for the members of the 3rd estate? ending the tax exemptions
The King and his family had remained in Versailles and refused to accept the reforms of the N.A. Under what circumstances was Louis XVI compelled to return to Paris and accept the Declaration of the Rights of Man? armed Parisian women met with Louis XVI and described how their children were starving from a lack of bread. They forced the king to accept their decrees and took him to Paris to show his support of the N.A.
How did the Church fair under the N.A.?Why? Govt is now in charge of the church. B/c of the need for $, the N.A. seized and sold the church lands. The church became secularized; both bishops and priests were to be elected by the ppl and paid by the state.
With the new constitution, what shift in government occurred? absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy
Why didn't all of French society support the reforms? wanted the king gone
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that a govt's power comes from the consent of the people and all people are born free and equal, with natural rights to life, liberty, and property? John Locke
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that there must be free speech and religious toleration? Voltaire
Which Enlightenment thinker believed in separation of powers? Montesquieu
Which Enlightenment thinker believe in a democracy where the "general will" rules? Rousseau
What is the word for the division of powers on government? This included things like limited government and checks and balances. separation of powers
What is the word for free will and social and political freedoms? liberty
What is the word for equal in status, rights, and opportunities? equality
What is the word for govt ruled by many? democracy
What is the word for authority of government given by the consent of the people? popular sovereignty
What is the word for a right inherent to all people? human rights
What is the word for the government limited by a set of laws? constitutionalism
What is the word for extreme patriotism? nationalism
Which estate has over 130,000 people, 10% of the people owned the land, and was .5% of the total population? 1st estate
Which estate is referred to as the nobility? 2nd
Which estate is divided by vast differences in occupation, level of education, and wealth? 3rd
Which estate is referred to as the National Assembly? 3rd
Which estate has over 350,000 people who owned 25 to 30% of the land, held many high positions in the government, and was 1.5% of the total population? 2nd
Which estate(s) was exempted from taxes? 2nd and 1st
Which estate(s) was not exempted from taxes? 3rd
Which estate contained peasants, urban workers, and bourgeoisie? 3rd
What is the word for social classes? estates
What is the word for tax(es)? taille
What is the word for middle class? bourgeoisie
What is the word for aristocratic privileges? relics of feudalism
Who are the lower people who wore short pants called? Sans Culottes
Created by: marykatescamardo