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Physio- Exam 5

Adrenal Glands

QuestionAnswer
What are the four types of hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands 1. Mineralocorticoids 2. Glucocorticoids 3. Androgens 4. Catecholamines
What type of hormones are produced by the glomerulosa of the adrenal gland Mineral corticoids
What type of hormones are produced by the fasiculata of the adrenal gland Glucocorticoids
What type of hormones are produced by the reticularis of the adrenal gland Androgens
What type of hormones are produced by the medulla of the adrenal gland Catecholamines
What is the primary glucocorticoid Cortisol
What is the primary mineralcorticoid Aldosterone
What enzyme is not found in the glomerulosa CYP17
What enzyme is necessary to convert the progestins to glucocorticoids and androgens CYP17
What enzyme is only found in the glomerulosa CYP11B2
What is the other name for CYP11B2 Aldosterone synthase
Steroids are found in circulation are bound to Corticosteroid-binding protein (CBP) or other plasma proteins (i.e. albumin)
What are the four types of hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands 1. Mineralocorticoids 2. Glucocorticoids 3. Androgens 4. Catecholamines
What type of hormones are produced by the glomerulosa of the adrenal gland Mineral corticoids
What type of hormones are produced by the fasiculata of the adrenal gland Glucocorticoids
What type of hormones are produced by the reticularis of the adrenal gland Androgens
What type of hormones are produced by the medulla of the adrenal gland Catecholamines
What is the primary glucocorticoid Cortisol
What is the primary mineralcorticoid Aldosterone
What enzyme is not found in the glomerulosa CYP17
What enzyme is necessary to convert the progestins to glucocorticoids and androgens CYP17
What enzyme is only found in the glomerulosa CYP11B2
What is the other name for CYP11B2 Aldosterone synthase
Steroids are found in circulation are bound to Corticosteroid-binding protein (CBP) or other plasma proteins (i.e. albumin)
Where are the corticosteroid-binding proteins produced Liver
What stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH
What hormone is required for the maintainence of the adrenal cortex ACTH
ACTH primarily effects what zones of the adrenal cortex Fasciculata and reticularis
ACTH binding stimulates a cAMP cascade that stimulates what protein StAR protein
What does StAR protein do Carries cholesterol into the inner mitochondrial membrane so that steroid hormones can be made
What does cortisol inhibit at the pituitary Synthesis of CRH receptor and Synthesis of ACTH
What does cortisol inhibit at teh hypothalamus Synthesis and release of CRH
What type of receptors do glucocorticoids work through Intracellular, nuclear receptors
The glucocorticoid receptors are found mainly where and what are they coupled to Found in the cytosol and coupled to heat shock proteins
The binding of glucocorticoids to their receptor causes dissociation of the heat shock proteins which allows the hormone/receptor complex to Enter the nucleus and influence gene transcription
What inhibits the secretion of glucocorticoids Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
How does Antrial natriuretic peptide inhibit the secretion of glucocorticoids By inhibiting Star
What do glucocorticoids inhibit Reproductive system, production of prostiglandins, production of collagen
What do glucocorticoids stimulate Glucose availability, secretions in eye, production of visceral adipose, lung maturation in fetus, appetite
What causes hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Lack of negative feedback,high circulation of ACTH
What effects does high concentrations of ACTH cause Hypertropohy of cortex, skin pigmentation
What is congential adrenal hyperplasia Defect/deleation in genes encoding StAR or steriodogenic enzymes
What is a primary cause of hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Adrenal disease e.g. Addison's disease
What is Addison's disease decreased adrenal output of glucocorticoids
What can cause Addison's disease Autoimmune, Infections, Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
What is a secondary cause of hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Deficiency of ACTH
If congentital adrenal hyperplasia is not caught and treated what happens to the infant Undergoes salt waisting and can die
What is the most common defect that causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia A defect in CYP21A2
How does Antrial natriuretic peptide inhibit the secretion of glucocorticoids By inhibiting Star
What do glucocorticoids inhibit Reproductive system, production of prostiglandins, production of collagen
What do glucocorticoids stimulate Glucose availability, secretions in eye, production of visceral adipose, lung maturation in fetus, appetite
What causes hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Lack of negative feedback,high circulation of ACTH
What effects does high concentrations of ACTH cause Hypertropohy of cortex, skin pigmentation
What is congential adrenal hyperplasia Defect/deleation in genes encoding StAR or steriodogenic enzymes
What is a primary cause of hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Adrenal disease e.g. Addison's disease
What is Addison's disease decreased adrenal output of glucocorticoids
What can cause Addison's disease Autoimmune, Infections, Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
What is a secondary cause of hyposecretion of glucocorticoids Deficiency of ACTH
If congentital adrenal hyperplasia is not caught and treated what happens to the infant Undergoes salt waisting and can die
What is the most common defect that causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia A defect in CYP21A2
What is the difference between Cushing's syndrom and Cushing's disease Syndrome is the hypersecretion of glucorticoids Disease is the hypersecretion of ACTH
In adults what is the primary cause of hypersecretion of glucocorticoids Pituitary dependent (adenoma)
In children what is the primary cause of hypersecretion of glucocorticoids Adrenal dependent (carcinoma-rapid; adenom-gradual onset)
What types of symptoms are seen in hypersecretion Dorsal kyphosis, Central obesity, Moon facies, Supraclavicula adipocity, Hirsutism in women, Abdominal striae
What are the primary stimulators secretion of mineralcorticoids Angiotensin II and Extracellular [K+]
How does angiotensin II stimulate the secretion of mineralcorticoids Binds AT1 recepor coupled to G protein, activates calmodulin kinases stimulating CYP11B2 activity
How does extracellular K stimulate the secretion of mineralcorticoids Causes depolarization of of plasma membrane allowing for influx of Ca which activates calmodulin kinases stimulating CYP11B2 activity
What inhibits the secretion of mineralocorticoids ANP
How does ANP inhibit the secretion of mineralocroticoids By direcetly binding to glomerulosa cells in the adrenal cortex and indirectly by reducing renin release
What are the roles of mineral corticoids Salt and water retention by increasing Na channel and Na/Cl cotransporter expression in kidney , Maintain [K+], Regulating Blood pressure
What does 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase do Inactivates cortisol preventing the activation of minocorticoid receptors by glucocorticoids
What does excess aldosterone lead to Hypertension
What stimulates the secretion of adrenal adrogens ACTH
Adrenal adrogens are an important contributor of circulating androgens in ... but not ... Women, Men
What cells are resposiple for the synthesis of catecholamines Chromaffin cells
What is the primary catecholamine Epinephrin
What is epinephrin bound to in storage Chromogranins
What is enzyme that is responsible for the rate limiting step in the conversion of tyrosine to epinephrin Tyrosine hydroxylase
What stimulates secretion of catecholamines ACTH, Cortisol, Sympathetic stimulation
What inhibits the secretion of catecholamines Chromagranin catabolic products
What type of receptors do catecholamines work through G protein coupled receptors
What is primary cause of hypersecretion of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla Theochromocytoma
Created by: mhaynes