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Body System Terms

Week 7

QuestionAnswer
oophorotomy incision into an ovary
orchiectomy removal of one or both testes
orchioplasty surgical repair of a testis
orchiotomy incision into a testis
ovariectomy excision of one or both ovaries
ovariotomy incision of an ovary
uteropexy surgical fixation of the uterus
uteroplasty surgical repair of the uterus
uterotomy incision of the uterus
amenorrhea absence or abnormal cessation
Cesarean section surgical operation through the abdominal wall and uterus for delivery of the baby
colposcopy examination of the vagina and cervix using an endoscopic instrument
dysmenorrhea difficult or painful menses
ectopic pregnancy development of an impregnated ovum outside the uterus
endometriosis tissue outside the uterus that resembles the inner lining of the uterus
hypermenorrhea prolonged or excessive menorrhea; also sometimes called menorrhagia
lactation the production of milk
menopause permanent cessation of menses
menorrhagia see hypermenorrhea
salpingitis inflammation of the uterine tube
orchitis inflammation of a testis
ovarialgia pain in an ovary
ovaritis inflammation of an ovary
obstetrician a physician who specializes in the medical care of women during pregnancy and childbirth
obstetrics medical specialty concerned with the medical care of women during pregnancy and childbirth
amniocentesis extraction and diagnostic examination of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac
mammography examination of the breast by means of an imaging technique, such as radiography
pap test microscopic examination of cells from a mucosal surface, especially the uterine cervix
cervicectomy excision of the uterine cervix
cervicoplasty surgical repair of the uterine cervix OR the neck
cervicotomy incision of the uterine cervix
hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
hysteropexy surgical fixation of the uterus
hysteroplasty surgical repair of the uterus
hysterotomy incision of the uterus
oophorectomy excision of an ovary; overiectomy
oophoroplasty surgical repair of an ovary
sperm the male gamete
spermatogenesis production of sperm
testes the organs that produce and store the male gametes
testosterone androgen prominent in male gamete production
urethra male ductwork that acts as a part of both the male urinary and male reproductive systems
uterine cervix the "neck" located at the lower end of the uterus
uterine cycle part of the reproduction system process in women, comprising three phases
uterine tubes tubes between the ovaries and the uterus
uterus reproductive organ in which the fertilized oocyte is implanted and in which the child develops
vas deferends duct leading out of the epididymis
cervicitis inflammation of the uterine cervix
hysteralgia pain in the uterus
hysteropathy any disease of the uterus
oophoritis inflammation of an ovary
orchialgia pain in the testes
orchiopathy any disease of the testes
mitosis process of cell division by which one cell becomes two, both of which contain the maternal and paternal chromosomes
oocytes the product of oogenesis that become the female gametes
oogenesis production of oocytes
ovulation release of the female gamete that occurs during the proliferative stage of the uterine cycle
ovum the female gamete
para a woman who has given birth
progesterone hormone produced in the ovaries
progestins female hormones generated in the ovaries and required for oogenesis
proliferative adjectival form of proliferation; term signifying one part of the uterine life
prostate gland male gland that produces and stores prostatic fluid
prostatic fluid product of the prostate gland
reproductive tract in the male reproductive system, the ductwork leading from the epididymus to the outside of the body
secretory adjectival form of secrete; part of the uterine cycle
semen combination of the male gametes, their associated glandular secretions, and prostatic fluid
diploid cell cell containing both the maternal and paternal chromosomes
ductus deferens duct leading out of the epididymis
embryo name change from zygote after the first cell division and until the eight week of pregnancy
epididymis organ in which the male sperm become functional
fallopian tubes between the ovaries and the uterus
fertilization the joining of the male and female gametes
fetus name change from embryo after the eight week of pregnancy to birth
gamete term given to both the female ovum and the male spermatozoon
gestation development that occurs between the formation of the zygote and birth of the child
gonad gamete-generating organ
gravida a pregnant woman
haploid cell cell containing only one set of chromosomes, those of either the potential father or the potential mother
meiosis cell division that produces cells with only one set of chromosomes, those of either the potential father or the potential mother
menses end of one uterine cycle and the beginning of another
menstrual cycle part of the reproductive system process in women
amniotic sac fluid-filled sac that surrounds the fetus inside the uterus
androgens hormones that promote the production of male gametes
cervix common term for the uterine cervix
chromosome a gene-bearing bundle of DNA found in the nucleus of all cells
aminocentesis extraction and diagnostic examination of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac
cervicectomy excision of the uterine cervix
cervicitis inflammation of the uterine cervix
cervicoplasty surgical repair of the uterine cervix OR neck
cervicotomy incision of the uterine cervix
Addison disease a disorder characterized by a failure of the adrenal glands to produce hydrocortisone and in some cases aldosterone
Cushing syndrome a hormonal disorder caused by too much hydrocortisone
Graves disease a common form of hyperthyroidism resulting from over production of thyroxine; caused by a false immune system response
hydrocortisone an adrenal gland hormone secretion
hyperpituitarism excessive hormone secretion by the pituitary gland
hyperthyroidism condition caused by an overactive thyroid; usually caused by an immune system disorder known as Grave's disease
hypophysitis inflammation of the pituitary gland
hypopituitarism condition of diminished hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland
pituitarism any pituitary dysfunction
thyroaplasia congenital condition characterized by low thyroid output
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyromegaly enlargement of the thyroid gland
endocrinologist medical specialist in endocrinology
endrocrinology medical specialty of the endocrine system
adenectomy excision of a gland
adentomy incision of a gland
adrenalectomy surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
hypophysectomy surgical removal of hypophysis
parathyroidectomy surgical excision of the parathyroid gland
thyroidectomy excision of the thyroid gland
thyroparathyroidectomy excision of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
thyrotomy surgery performed on the thyroid gland
somatotropin hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to signal the liver to secrete somatomedin, which stimulates growth
suprarenal glands another name for the adrenal glands
thyroid gland one of the four glands belonging solely to the endocrine system
thyrotropin thyroid-stimulating hormone
throxine a secretion of the thyroid gland
triiodothyronine another secretion of the thyroid gland, which is often synthesized from thyroxine by bodily organs
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenohypophysitis inflammation of the hypophysis
adrenalitis inflammation of an adrenal gland
adrenalopathy any disease of the adrenal glands
adrenomegaly enlargement of the adrenal glands
diabetes insipidus condition brought about by the posterior pituitary's failure to produce enough ADH
diabetes mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2 condition brought about by insufficient production of insulin in the pancrease or the failure of teh body's cells to absorb glucose
goiter chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland
hyperglycemia excessive sugar in the blood
gonadotropin interstitial cell-stimulating hormone; hormone promoting gonadal growth in the male
gonadotropin luteinizing hormone; stimulates ovulation
hypophysis synonym for pituitary gland
lipid derivatives one of the three chemical classes of hormones
melanocyte-stimulating hormone hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland
melatonin hormone secreted by the pineal gland
neurohypophysis synonym for posterior pituitary gland
noradrenaline synonym for norepinephrine; produced in smaller amounts than adreanaline; has strong vasoconstrictive effects
norepinephrine synonym for noradrenaline
oxytocin hormone secreted by te posterior pituitary gland
parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone, which slows the loss of calcium from bone
peptide hormones one of the three chemical classes of hormones
parathyroid hormone a hormone that slows calcium loss from bones
pineal gland glad that secretes melatonin, an antioxidant that is otherwise not well understood
pituitary gland synonym for hypophysis
prolactin a secretion of the anterior pituitary gland
adenogenous originating in a gland
adenohypophysis the anterior pituitary gland
adrenal glands glads, located one at the top of each kidney
adrenaline synonym for epinephrine, a powerful stimulant capable of producing a range of effects, such as increases in muscular strength and endurance
aldosterone one of the corticosteroids, hormones produced by the adrenal glands
amino acid derivatives one of the three chemical classes of hormones
antidiuretic hormone hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water
cacitonin hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorption into the bones
corticosteroids steroid produced by the cortices of the adrenal glands
corticotropin pituitary secretion that stimulates the adrenal glands
endocrine adjective describing a gland that delivers its secretions directly into the extracellular fluid
epinephrine synonym for adrenaline, a powerful stimulant capable of producing a range of effects, such as increases in muscular strength and endurance
exocrine adjective describing a gland that delivers its secretions through a duct onto the skin or other epithelial surface
gonadotropin follicle-stimulating hormone; hormone promoting gonadal growth
Created by: aparke27