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Physio Exam 5

Hypothalamus & Pituitary

What the types of factors can influence the Hypothalamic centers 1. Sleep/wake 2. Pain 3. Emotion 4. Fright 5. Rage 6. Smell 7. Vision
What are some functions of the hypothalamus 1. Food/Water intake 2. Sleep/Wakefulness 3. Growth 4. Circadian clock 5. Pituitary gland 6. Parental behavior 7. Temperature regulation 8. 2nd: mineral/carbohydrate metabolism 9 Reproduction
What are the two divisions of the Pituitary gland 1. Posterior 2. Anterior
The posterior pituitary is divided into what three parts 1. Pars nervosa 2. Median eminence 3. Infundibulum
The anterior pituitary is divided into what three parts 1. Pars distalis 2. Pars tuberalis 3. Pars intermedia
Which part of the pituitary gland is composed of nervous tissue Posterior
Which part of the pituitary gland is composed of glandular tissue Anterior
What carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion from the adenohypophysis A portal system
There is ... vascular connection between teh lobes of the pituitary Limited
What type of relationship does the hypothalamus have with the posterior pituitary A direct neuronal
What type of neuron is responsible for the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary Magnicellular neuron
What type of neuron is responsible for the release of hormone that travels through the capillary network from teh hypothalamus to the pituitary to trigger the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary Parvicellular neuron
The pituitary is sometimes call the Master gland
What are the two hormones released from posterior pituitary 1. Oxytocin 2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka Vasopressin
By how many amino acids to ADH and Oxytocin vary Two
What is the prohormone form of ADH bound too Neurophysin II
What is the prohormone form of oxytocin bound too Neurophysin I
What is the major activity of ADH Increase water uptake by the kidneys
How does ADH increase water uptake by the kidney It does so by binding its V2 receptor stimulates cAMP which stimulates the insertion of aquaporin-2 into the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct allowing the water to enter the cell through the channels.
What are other activities of ADH 1. Arterial and venous constriction 2. Stimulate ACTH release 3. Stimulate spermaticord contraction
What is the primary factor that regulates the release of ADH or the inhibition of ADH secretion Rapid changes in osmolality
What is a pathological factor that stimulates the secretion of ADH Nausea/vomiting
A decrease in pressure at baroreceptors in cardiac sinus and aortic arch stimulate the secretion of ADH via what nerves CN IX & X
What are two clinical problems associated with ADH 1. Diabetes insipidus (DI) 2. Syndrom of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
What are the three types of Diabetes insipidus 1. Hypothalamic DI 2. Nephrogenic DI 3. Dipsogenic DI
This type of diabetes insipidus involves a deficiency in ADH Hypothalamic DI
This type of diabetes insipidus involves renal resistance to ADH Nephrogenic DI
This type of diabetes insipidus involves inappropriate or excessive water drinking Dipsogenic DI
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis is the most common cause of Euvolemic hypoosmolality
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis types A-D are characterized by Plasma ADH in relationship to osmolality
What are causes of syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis 1. Neoplastic disease 2. CNS disorders 3. Pulmonary diseas 4. Drugs 5. Others such as AIDS, idiopathic, senile atrophy
What stimulates the secretion of Oxytocin 1. Suckling 2. Estradiol 3. Fergusson reflex
What inhibits the secretion of Oxytocin 1. Opiod 2. Catecholamines
What are the activities of oxytocin 1. Milk ejection 2. Uterine contractions 3. Behavior 4. Ovulation 5. Ejaculation
How are the activities of oxytocind mediated By Gq protein receptor which activates the phospholipase C pathway
What are the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary 1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 3. Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 5. Prolactin 6. Endorphins 7. Growth hormone (GH)
If a problem occurs during the development of the anterior pituitary more than one cell type may be effected because the different cell types share a ... Common lineage
What class of hormone is prolactin Protein hormone
What is the primary regulator of prolactin secretion Dopamine
Where are the primary receptors for prolactin located 1. Breast 2. Pituitary
What is the most active form of prolactin Monomer
What pathway does the binding of prolactin to its receptor activate JAK/STAT
What are the functions of prolactin 1. Lactation 2. Reproduction 3. Lymphocyte growth factor
Hypersecretion of prolactin can lead to 1. Galactorrhea in males 2. Reduced sperm production (infertility) 3. Reduced or lack of menstrual cycles (infertility)
What stimulates the secretion of prolactin 1. Estrogen 2. Breast manipulation 3. Sleep 4. TRH
What inhibits the secretion of prolactin 1. Dopamine 2. PRL 3. Somatostatin
What class of hormone is Growth Hormone Protein hormone
What two varients of growth hormone are produced by the pituitary 1. 22kD 2. 20 kD
This varient of growth hormone is the primary form and has growth promoting activity 22 kD
This varient of growth hormone is the minor form and has diabetogenic effects. It also has a slower metabolic clearnace rate. 20 kD
What are the two types of growth hormone bindng proteins 1. High affinity 2. Low affinity
Which grwoth hormone binding hormone corresponds to extracellular domain of Growth hormone receptor and binds to the 22 kK form High affinity
Which growth hormone binding protein is unrelated to the growth hormone receptor and binds the 20 kD form Low affinity
The binding of growth hormone to the growth hormone binding protein does what to the half life Extends it
Growth hormone is released in what Pulses
Where are growth hormone receptors located 1. Liver 2. Muscle 3. Adipose
The binding of growth hormone to its receptor activates what pathway JAK/STAT
Hypersecretion of growth hormone before puberty results in Giantism
Hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty results in Acromegally
Hyposecretion of growth hormone results in Dwarfism
Mediators of somatic function of growth hormone Somatomedians: Insulin like growth factors (IGF) I & II
What stimulates the release of growth hormone 1. Growh hormone releasing hormone 2. Ghrelin 3. Fasting
What inhibits the release of growth hormone 1. Somatostatin 2. High levels of growth hormone 3. Somatomedins
What class of hormone is somatostatin Peptide hormone
The cleave of the somatostatin prohormone yields what two somatostatin forms 1. 14 aa in lenght 2. 28 aa in lenght
What form of somatostatin is prominent in the brain 14 aa
What form of somatostatin is prominent in the GI 28 aa
Somatostatin inhibits the release of what 1. GH, PRL and TSH from the pituitary 2. Insulin and glucagon from the pancreas 3. Secretions from the enteroendocrine cells
How many type of receptors does somatostatin have Five SSRT1-5
What class of hormone is Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Peptide hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a product of what gene Pro-opiomelanocortin
What pattern of release does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) have Circadian
What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone maintain Secretory epithelium of the adrenal gland
Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)leads to Cushing's disease
Hyposecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) leads to Fatigue and loss of energy
What enzyme cleaves the POMC that leads to the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Prohormone convertase
What stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 1. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) 2. Sleep/wake transition 3. Stress
What inhibits the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 1. Cortisol 2. ACTH 3. Somatostatin
What class of hormone is Thryroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (Thyrotropin) Glycoprotein
Thryroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a heterodimer combosed of a common ... chain and a unique ... chain Alpha, Beta
TSH, LH, FSH all chare a ... Chain and have a ... chain Common alpha, Different beta
What inhibits the transcription of mRNA fro both the alpha and beta chains and expression of TRH receptor Thyroid Hormone
What stimulates the transcription of mRNA for both alpha and beta chains TRH
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is released in a pulse
How long is the half life of thryroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 50 minutes
What gives thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) its long half life The sugar units of the glycoprotein
What stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 1. TRH 2. Exposure to cold (animals and infants but not always adults) 3. Leptin
What inhibits the release of thryoid stimulating hormone (TSH) 1. T4/T3 2. Fasting 3. Somatostatin 4. Dopamine 5. cortisol 6. GH
What class of hormone are Gonadotropins Glycoproteins
What type of receptors do ganadotropins act through G protien coupled
What pathway does Folicle stimulating hormone (FSH) activate cAMP
WHat pathway does Lutinizing hormone (LH) activate cAMP;PLC
What are the main targets of gonadotropins Gonads
The differential release of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) has what selective effects on FSH and LH 1. Post-transcription modifications 2. Secretion patterns (pulse)
Hyposecretion of gonadotropins leads to Sub or infertility
What stimulates the release of gonadotropins Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
What inhibits the release of ganadotropins 1. Testosterone 2. Estrogens 3. Progesterone
Created by: mhaynes