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Physio Exam 5

Overview of the Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
Name the Classic Endocrine Organs 1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary gland 3. Pineal gland 4. Parathyroid glands 5. Thyroid gland 6. Adrenal glands 7. Pancrease 8. Testes 9. Ovaries 10. Uterus 11. Placenta
Molecules of this type regulate enzyme reactions, transport ions/molecules across membrane,gene expression, and protien synthesis Hormones
Hormones exert effects at very ... concentrations Low
The effects of hormones are mediated by ... Receptors
The ... regulates teh ability of hormones to affect cells/tissues Half-life
A ... half-life gives a hormone a greater chance to act upon an organ Longer
Hormone communication in which a hormone is released from a cell that enters blood vessels Hemocrine
Hormone communication in which a hormone is released form a cell that interacts with receptor(s) on nearbly cells Paracrine
Hormone communication in which there is a direct ransfer of a messenger molecule inot adjacent cells via gap junctions Intercrine
Hormone communication in which a messenger molecule remains associated with the cell membrane of the signaling cell and interacts with the receptors on an adjacent cell Juxtacrine
Hormone communication in which a hormone is secreted and intereacts with a receptor on the same cell Autocrine
Hormone communication in which a messenger molecule is produced by neurons Neurocrine
Neurocrine hormone communication in which a messenger molecules traverses the synaptic space Synaptic
Neurocrine hormone communication in which a messenger molecule is carried to the site of action by ECF or blood Non-synaptic (neurosecretion)
Hormone communication in which a messenger molecule is secreted into the lumen of a ductal system (i.e. GI, respiratory, urogenital) Solicrine
Hormone communication in which there is the uptake of a hormonal precursar and intracellular conversion to effective hormone and subsequent binding to an intracellular receptor Intracrine
What are the four classes of hormones 1. Amino acid derivatives 2. Peptide/Polypeptide 3. Steroid 4. Fatty acid derivatives
Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are what class of hormone Amino acid derivatives
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), atrial nariuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin calcitonin, CCK, growth hormone, inhibin, insulin, parathyroid hormone, somatostatin, thyrotropin (TSH, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are what class of hormone Peptide/polypeptide
Cortisol, aldosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone are what class of hormone Steroid
Postaglandins and thromboxanes are what cless of hormone Fatty acid derivatives
What are the four mechanisms of regulation of hormone release 1. Nerve activation and conductance of signal to endocrine tissue 2. environmental changes 3. hormonal stimulation 4. feedback to endocrine tissue
What are the two types of receptors associated with hormonal responses 1. Intracellular 2. PLasma membrane
What are the two types of Intracellular receptors 1. Cytoplasmic 2. Nuclear
What are the four types of plasma membrane receptors 1. G protiens 2. Tyrosine Kinases 3. Serine/Threonine kinases 4. Ion channel
Peptide and protein hormone classes work through what type of receptor Plasma membrane
A sequence of DNA which interacts with a hormone receptor complex. This is how transcription is regulated Hormone Response Element
What are the three types of hormone/hormone interaction 1. Synergistic 2. Antagonistic 3. Permissive
What is an example of synergistic hormone/hormone interaction Glucagon and epinephrine
What is an example of antagonistic hormone/hormone interaction Insulin and glucagon
What is an example of permissive hormone/hormone interaction Steroid priming of hypothalamus/pituitary
What are the five factors affecting hormonal effect 1. Synthesis of hormone 2. Receptro mediated signal transduction 3. Hormone inactivation/clearance 4. Feedback systems 5. Rhythm of hormone release
What three synthesis factors effect hormonal effects 1. Post-transcription 2. Post-translational procssing of the hormone 3. Post-secretory extracellular transport of hormone
What three receptor mediated signal transduction factors effect hormonal effects 1. Affinity, number, occupancy, desenitization 2. Cellular second messenger components 3. Degradation of second messenger signaling factors
What two hormone inactivation/clearance factors effect hormonal effects 1. porcessing bound vs. free circulating hormone 2. Metabolic clearnace rate
When a hormone is bound to a carrier its half-life is ... Extended
What five factors of feedback systems effect hormonal effects 1. Positive 2. Negative 3. Long 4. Short 5. Ultrashort
In this type of feedback loop teh secretion of the peripheral gland indirectly affects the pituitary hormone secretion Long
Thyroid hormone inhibits the release of TRH, therefore decreasing the stimulus to the pituitary to secrete TSH. This is an example of a ... feedback loop. Long
In this type of feedback loop secretion of the pituitary affect hypothalamic hormone release Short
TSH released from the pituitary negatively influences the secretion of TRH from the hypothalamus. This is an example of a ... feedback loop Short
In this type of feedback loop a hormone feedsback to the cell of its production or a neighboring cell to inhibit further secretion of 'itself' Ultrashort
TSH inhibiting the release of TSH from tyrotrophs is an esample of a ... feedback loop Ultrashort
What are the three types of rhythm of hormone release 1. Circadian 2. Ultradian 3. Infradian
In this rhythm of hormone release the pattern of secretion is about every 24 hours Circadian
The release of melatonin is an example of what type of rhythm release Circadian
In this rhythm of hormone release the pattern of secretions is frequent (i.e. every 90-100 minutes)/24 hours Ultradian
The release of growth hormone is an example of what type of rhythm release Ultradian
In this rhythm of hormone relase the pattern of secretion is over a period greater than 24 hours Infradian
The release of LH surge during menstration is an example of what type of rhythm release Infradian
Assays for measuring hormones can measure what forms of hormones Free, Bound, or Total (free + bound)
What are four types of assays for measuring hormones 1. Radioimmunoassay 2. Enzyme immunoassay 3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay 4. Immunoradiometric assay
Created by: mhaynes