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Pepperd Midterm

Rise of Church Power to The Scientific Revolution

Hohenzollerns family that ruled the German state of Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia powerful German states ruled by the Hohenzollerns
Junkers (Yonkers) nobles of Brandenburg-Prussia
Frederick William I of PR. also known as the soldier king, created powerful Prussian military dubbed "Sparta of the North" of over 80,000 men, best army in Europe
Frederick II king of Prussia after Frederick William I, lover of music and poetry, spoke many different languages: French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian, understood Latin, Greek, and Hebrew
Silesia territory seized by Prussia ensuing the War of the Austrian Succession, kept the territory after the war
Ottoman Turks most powerful empire in the world, controlled Hungary and land eastward including parts of central europe
Istanbul formerly Constantinople, was renamed after it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks
Suleiman the Great (Magnificent) built up the Ottoman empire to be the most powerful in the world
Maria Theresa Empress of Austria, as Empress: rebuilds military, reformed tax codes, expelled Jews, outlawed death penalty, Decency police
War of the Austrian Succession Frederick II of PR. offers to help legitimize Maria Theresa's position as a female ruler, she turns down the offer and the war begins. ends in stalemate, with the treaty of Aix-la Chapelle. means Prussia takes Silesia, Maria keeps her crown
Seven Years War called French and Indian War in NA, follwed War of Austrian Succession. France, Austria and Russia fought Prussia and Great Britain in Europe, NA, and India
Ivan IV ("the terrible") came to throne at age 3, age 16 seized power as Czar. Later rule after wife Anastasia dies is when he is known as Ivan the Terrible, Secret Police hunted traitors to Russia, executed boyars, killed eldest son in rage
boyars nobles of Russia
Czar (Tsar) absolute ruler of Russia, taken from the Roman "Caesar", Ivan IV was first to use this term
Michael Romanov chosen to rule Russia after the death of Ivan the IV and Russia's "time of troubles"
Peter the Great descendant of Michael Romanov, westernizes Russia, hired a navigator to explore between Siberia and Alaska, signed treaty with Qing China for lands north of Manchuria, created largest standing army, built new capitol: St. Petersburg
Reforms of Peter brought church under state control, reduced power of wealthy landowners, introduced potatoes, started first newspaper, raised woman's status, introduced new european fashion to nobles, beard tax, rich must be educated, caused spread of serfdom
Tudors family that ruled England before the Stuarts, ends with Elizabeth
Stuarts family that rules England after the Tudors, starts with James
James I of Eng. formerly King James IV of Scotland son of Mary Queen of Scots, nephew of Elizabeth I, succeeded her. agreed to rule according to English law and customs but came to believe in divine right, alienating parliament, promoted creation of unified bible
Charles I of Eng. inherited throne from dad, James I; had pro-Catholic ceremonies and sought the uniformity of church services imposed by William Laud, Archbishop of Canterberry
Puritans English Protestants who believed that the reforms of the Church of England did not go far enough. In their view, the liturgy was still too Catholic
Petition of Right agreement signed by Charles I that stated: no imprisonment without due cause, not taxation without Parliament's consent, no putting soldiers in private homes, no martial law during peacetime. Charles signed and then ignored this, dissolving Parliament
Gunpowder Plot an attempt by provincial Catholics to kill King James I and most of the Protestant aristocracy
Guy Fawkes one of the main people behind the Gunpowder Plot, was captured with the powder kegs and found guilty of treason
Triennial Act In need of money, Charles calls Parliament to meet, they demand Laud executed and the Triennial Act passed which stated: Parliament must be called to session at least once every 3 years, parliament can't be adjourned without its own consent
Cavaliers Royalists: House of Lords, North and West England, Aristocracy, Large landowners, Church officials, more rural
Roundheads Parliamentarians: House of Commons, South and East England, Puritans, Merchants, Townspeople, more urban
Oliver Comwell led the army that defeated royal forces and now controlled the government, purges the House of Commons of those who supported the monarchy, becomes known as the Rump Parliament
New Modern Army Parliamentary army led by Oliver Comwell
Commonwealth Oliver Comwell rules with the Rump Parliament to establish a Constitutional Republic, created a constitution, no monarch
Protectorate Oliver Comwell tears up the ineffective Constitution, dismisses Rump Parliament and becomes a military dictator
Charles II of Eng. Son of executed Charles I, restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and brothels closed during the Restoration, realized he could not repeat the mistakes of his father
Test Act only Anglicans can hold civilian and military positions
Tories and Whigs Tory (pro monarchy) Whig (anti-king)
Habeas Corpus Act any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus; the government had to explain why a person had lost his liberty
James II of Eng. Brother of Charles II, converted to Catholicism and introduced Catholics into the government, violating the Test Act, camped army outside of London, married a Catholic wife and fathered a Catholic child, setting off the Revolution
William and Mary Mary, James' daughter, and William of Orange were offered by Parliament the throne as long as they agreed to sign the English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights settled all the major issues between King and Parliament, *see packet for details
Glorious Revolution when the Catholic wife of James II became pregnant, Parliament feared the heir would be raised a Catholic, thus they offered the throne to William and Mary
Constitutional Monarchy a form of government where a king or queen acts as Head of State. The ability to make and pass legislation resides with Parliament, not the Monarch
Muhammad Arab prophet and founder of Islam, Muslims regard him as God's messenger through whom the Koran was revealed
Mecca a city in western Saudi Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea, the birthplace of Muhammad
Medina a city in western Saudi Arabia north of Mecca, the mosque of the prophet Muhammad is a holy site for Muslim pilgrims
Allah the monotheistic god of the Muslims
Five Pillars five basic acts in Islam, considered obigatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life
Hajj a religious duty of the Muslims, a pilgrimage made to Muhammad's tomb, must be done once in every Muslim's life
Hijrah the journey of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina
Muslim an adherent of Islam, the religion based on the Koran
Islam a religion based on the Koran, a book that is believed to be the word of God
Mosque a place of worship for the followers of Islam
Koran the Islamic bible, believed to contain the word of God
Byzantine Empire the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle Ages
Patriarch the highest ranking bishop of the Eastern Orthodoxy
Schism of 1054 the split between the Catholic Church forming the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
Icon a religious work of art or symbol representing something else (ex. the Dove has become a symbol of Jesus Christ, the son of God in the Roman Catholic Church)
Constantinople the capital of the Byzantium Empire
Roman Catholic Church church led by Cardinals, Bishops, and the Pope in Rome, used cross as religious image, Gregorian calender, most powerful and influential institution of western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, had spiritual and political power
Eastern Orthodox Church church with several self-governing ecclesiastical bodies led by the Patriarch, used icons as religious image, Julian calender, had only spiritual power
Differences between RC vs. EO Churches Pope is infallible and has supreme authority vs. no pope with Archbishop who is fallible and lacks supreme power, masses in Latin vs. masses in vernacular
Excommunication banishment from the church and the sacraments, this meant for many that they wouldn't make it to heaven
Council at Clermont a council led by Pope Urban II, led to the crusade against the Muslims
Urban II Pope that proclaimed the First Crusade
Alexius emperor who wished to regain lost land for the Byzantine Empire
Jerusalem holy land that was fought over by Muslims, Turks, Hebrews, and Greeks
Peter the Hermit monk and preacher on the First Crusade, founded the Augustinian monastery
Saladin captured and defended Jerusalem during the Third Crusade
Byzantium ancient Greek city that later became Constantinople
First Crusade One fourth of the crusaders get to Antioch and Jerusalem. They murder everyone, men women, kids, Muslims, Jews, and Eastern Orthodox Christian. "Dues Vult" means "God wills it" Separated four kingdoms: Edessa, Tripoli, Antioch, Jerusalem
Second Crusade Turks capture Crusader city of Edessa, the second crusade starts in 1144, little happens
Third Crusade Jerusalem is captured by Muslim leader Saladin. Crusade is launched to take back Jerusalem and the holy land. King Phillip of France, Richard the lionhearted of England, HRE Fredrick I (Barbarossa) lead crusaders
Fourth Crusade Crusaders take back Constantinople. They never got to the holy land
Children's Crusade An attempt of children as seen in visions by a German or French boy to peacefully convert Muslims in the holy land to Christianity. The kids were transported to Italy and were sold into slavery
Reconquista Christian reconquering of Spain. The last Muslim outpost was overrun by King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile, all non-Christians were forced to convert or leave
Inquisition the prosecution of heretics; tortured for confession, once confessed they could be released, punished or burnt at the stake; mostly undertaken by the Dominican Order of Friars
Waldensians a heretical Christian sect that arose in the 11th century under Pierre (Peter) Waldo,also known as Poor Men of Lyons, joined the reformation in the 16th century
Albigensians a heretical Christian sect in south France arose in the 11th century, also known as the Cathari, exterminated in the 13th century from a crusade and inquisition
HRE a major political institution in Europe that lasted from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries, was loosely organized and modeled somewhat on the ancient Roman Empire and included great amounts of territory in parts of central and western Europe
Lay Investiture the appointment of bishops, abbots, and other church officials by feudal lords and vassals
Hildebrand became pope Gregory VII who made many reforms to the Church, his assertion of papal supremacy and his prohibition of lay investiture was opposed by the HRE Henry IV, whom he excommunicated, was then driven to exile when Henry captured Rome
HRE Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany who struggled for power with Pope Gregory VII. Twice excommunicated, Henry didn't like Greg banning lay investiture and called him a false monk, after he was repented re-deposed Greg after punishing his allies
Concordat of Worms 1122, agreement reached by Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V to put an end to the struggle over lay investiture, pope gets to choose who bishops are, emperor gets to grant land and secular authority
HRE Frederick I also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1155 by Pope Adrian IV, busy invading Italy which led to the separation of German states, helped to lead the third crusade
Pope Innocent III reigned from 1198 to death, one of the most influential popes, made the Church a secular power, decreed that the clergy had to pay no taxes to rulers without papal consent
Clergy the body of all people ordained for religious duties, especially in the Christian Church
Sacraments seven sacraments of the Church: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Matrimony, and Holy Orders, it was believed that the more sacraments you received, the more likely you were to go to heaven and the closer you were to God
Heretic a person who thinks bad of or goes against church doctrine
Parish (in the Christian Church) a small administrative district typically having its own church and a priest or pastor
Tithe one tenth of annual produce or earnings, formerly taken as a tax for the support of the church or clergy
Simony the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges or positions
Cluny a town in East Central France, important religious and cultural center in the middle ages including a reform movement where Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture
Thomas Aquinas Dominican friar and Catholic priest and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, wrote Summa Theologica and the Summa Contra Gentiles
Scholasticism the system of theology and philosophy taught in medieval European Universities, based on Aristotelian logic
St. Benedict wrote strict practical rules of monasteries, these monasteries became part of the Benedictine order
Dominicans a member of the Roman Catholic order of preaching friars founded by St. Dominic, ministered to the rich and powerful, sought to crush all opposition to Church ideas and were commonly inquisitors
Franciscans order of preaching friars founded by St. Francis of Assisi, took vows of poverty and ministered to the poor to help them find God
Cathedral the principal church of a diocese, with which the bishop is officially associated, meant to reflect the glory of God and inspire awe in the observer
Romanesque of or relating to a style of architecture found in early cathedrals, massive and heavy style with no large windows
Gothic of or in the style of architecture that prevailed in western Europe in the 12th-16th centuries, characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses, large stained glass windows, and elaborate tracery
Flying Buttress architecture found in Gothic style the distributes weight off of the walls of a cathedral
William the Conqueror won against Harold in the Battle of Hastings and became a king of England
Magna Carta a document created in 1215, it restricts the powers of the monarch and was signed by King John I of England
Estates General a council of social classes in France that consists of peasants, clergy, and nobles
Grand Jury decides if there is enough evidence to go to trial
Trial Jury decides the verdict of a trial
Common Law the system of law used in England, invented by King Henry I
Limited Monarchy a monarchy in which the king does not have as much power as he wants
Harold gained the crown of England with the support of the nobility, however lost it to William in the Battle of Hastings
Hastings the location of the Battle of Hastings in 1066 which decided who would be king of England, William or Harold
Domesday Book a census ordered by William the Conqueror to help create a tax system
Henry I of England created common law system and enforced it by sending a small council as judges on circuit
Henry II of England introduced a jury to the common law system, ordered the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket The Archbishop of Canterbury that disagreed with clergy being tried with common law, which caused Henry II to order his death
Richard I of England a king of England who only visited England twice and was on e of the three leaders of the Third Crusade along with Phillip II and HRE Fredrick I
John I of England the tyrannical king of England who caused and signed the Magna Carta and was the brother of Richard I
Parliament the council in England that was created by the Magna Carta and controls taxes
House of Lords the branch in Parliament that is made up of nobles
House of Commons the branch in Parliament that is made up of commoners
Phillip IV of France the king of France who started the Babylonian Captivity after Pope Boniface VIII excommunicated him
Ferdinand and Isabella rulers of Spain who united the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile
Black Death pandemic made up of a combination of diseases that spread over Europe and parts of Asia in the 1300's
Flagellates a group of people who would punish themselves to repent their sins which were believed to have caused the Black Death
Plagues the types of plague during the Black Death were Pneumonic, which attacked the respiratory system, Septicemic, which attacked the circulatory system, Enteric, which attakced the digestive system, and Bubonic, which attacked the lympahtic of immune system
Babylonian Captivity when France's Phillip IV attacked the Papal States and captured Pope Boniface VIII
Rome and Avignon the locations where the two popes lived
Council of Pisa the council that tried to end the Great Western Schism but caused three popes
Council of Constance forced all three popes to resign to resolve the Great Western Schism and elected Pope Martin V
The Great Western Schism a point in history where there were two, and then three popes in Rome, Avignon, and Pisa
Jon Hus and John Wycliffe claimed that the church was not needed to interpret the bible
100 Years War a war between England and France over control of the French throne, ended with England losing, lasted 116 years
Cre'cy and Agincourt locations of major English victories during the 100 years war
Eleanor of Aquitain the wife of Henry II of England and the mother of Richard I of England
Edward II of England claimed to be king of France as well as the king of England
Longbow and Cannon weapons that were advances in technology and were major aspects of the 100 years war
Joan of Arc claimed to hear heavenly voices and helped King Charles VII of France reclaim his domain, she was eventually captured and put on trial by the British and burnt at the stake as a heretic
War of the Roses a civil war in England between the House of Lancaster and the House of York that resulted in the start of the Tudor dynasty
The Decline of Feudalism causes were the Black Death and the 100 Years War
Lorenzo De Medici %
Florence initially an independent city state, served as a trading center, ruled by the Medici who used the patronage system, politics in Florence were ruthless but profitable due to the use of the patronage system, cultural center of Italy
Renaissance rebirth
humanities the study of classical languages and classical literature, the Latin and Greek classics as a field of study such as literature, philosophy and art as distinguished from the natural sciences
humanism % a literary movement focused on the study of literature and worldview
individualism a new definition of man emerged from humanist ideas: man is the measure of all things, master of his own destiny, worthy in and of himself, not just as past of the Great Chain of Being
secularism focus on this world, separate from spiritual world involvement in civic affairs, civic humanism and individual credit for achievement; curiosity of geographic limits, awareness of manners and morals, and interest and involvement in intellectual endeavors
skepticism having a skeptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something (church)
hedonism the ethical theory that pleasure (satisfactio of desires) is the highest good and proper aim of human life
classism interest in the classical world and an understanding of the importance of Latin and Greek works on medicine, science, and mathematics
Machiavelli wrote "The Prince", a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. The ends justify the means
Leonardo Da Vinci % dissected corpses to discover anatomy, left many works unfinished. Paintings: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
Created by: endionne