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Prehistory to 1500


what does Neolithic mean? new stone
what does paleolithic mean? old stone
what does australopithecines mean southern ape ( first upright hominids 3-4 mil yrs ago)
nickname for australopithecines? lucy
where did homo sapiens sapienscome from Africa
where does DNA say we all come from? Africa
was the agriculture ( Neolithic revolution) most important event in history? yes
what is civilization food surplus advanced cities technology skilled wokers system of writing
homo erectus left where? Africa
where did the homo sapiens sapiens cross? bearing straight
what is Mesopotamia birthplace of civilization
where is mesopotamia between tigris and Euphrates
what is modern day Mesopotamia? iraq
what is irrigation? moving water
what is race determined by? climate
what does nomadic mean? follow food
homo sapiens where when? 120000 yrs ago
why are rivers where early civilizations start? river makes land nearby fertile with minerals
who is Hammurabi? king of babylonian
when did Hammurabi resign? 1700 BCE
Babylonian empire was? most of Mesopotamia
what was the code of Hammurabi? eye for an eye
in Babylonian high class= ? less punishment
ancient Egypt began? 3100 BCE in nile delta
what was the writing in Egypt? hieroglyphics
which way does the nile flow? north 4,000 miles
what was egypts social structure shaped like? pyramid ( haha)
what big thing did Egypt come up with? rosetta stone
what is cunei form? meso writing wedge shaped
what is Harappa? ancient india
indus river was when? 3000BCE
European nomads did what? migrated to india brought caste system controlled natives
what is a caste system rigid social hierarchy ranking system
what does caste mean? social level
what was the rankings of the caste system? 1. priests 2. warriors ( Aryans) 3.workers ( Dravidians)
if you were outside of the caste system what was you known as? untouchable
what are untouchables? considered sub-human should not be spoken to or touched
what does meso mean? middle
where is meso America? mexico , central America
Olmec 1200BCE- mexico- old mexico
maya 300-900 CE - MEXICO
Aztec 1100s CE- mexico
inca 1400s CE- peru
what were silk roads? trade routes for indias empires
what was two major things that were exchanged on silk roads religion and culture
what is a caravan? a large group of travelers
what where the Chinese dynasties? shang, Zhou, chin,han,sui,tang,song
what was the shang dynasty known for? 1 dynasty, writing, ORACLE BONES- questions carved
what was the Zhou dynasty known for? mandate oh heaven
what was the Qin dynasty known for? great wall- kept out nomads
the greeks had had... city states. not one big country
who was homer and what did he write? an author who wrote odyssey and iliad
Athens was.... the dramatic civilization
Athens means? source of western culture
what was Sparta all about? WAR
what was Athens all about? democracy
what did Athens do? tried to unified Greece and lost to Sparta in Peloponnesian war
was Sparta an oligarchy? yes
what was the two main city states in Greece? Athens and Sparta
what did alexander the great do? conquered most of Mediterranean by age of 20 unifies Greece spread greek empire furthest started Hellenistic ( golden) age
what is a philosopher? someone who loves wisdom and has rational thoughts wants to explain nature without saying the gods did it
what order did the philosophers go in? Socrates, plato, Aristotle, alexander the great
Socrates came up with? socratic method
who were the romans ruled by? ruled by kings, then republic people elect people to make laws
what is a patrician? upper class- land owners ( senate- made laws "patricians")
what is a plebeian? lower class- poor, peasants
the 12 tables was what to the romans? first set of laws
what where some laws that we still use today? innocent until proven guilty, right to defend self in court
what did the jews think jesus Christ was? the messiah
when did jesus die? 33CE
what happened when jesus died? a branch of Judaism developed into Christianity
where is mali? west Africa
what is the capital of mali? Timbuktu
who was mansa musa? a man that doubled the size of mali and became a Muslim
what did mansa musa bring to meca? literally tons of gold
what did the mongols do? took over almost all of the east
what did the mongols have? the largest military
what was the mongols army name? the golden horde
why didn't the mongols take over japan? kamikazes ( huge storms)
why didn't the mongols take over Europe? ogedei died
who were important mongols? Genghis kahn ( grandpa) started and spread empire, ogedei kahn ( son) - died in Poland, Kublai kahn ( grandson)- took china called it yuan
was japan one big country in the beginning? no, small tribes
what happened in the 600s in japan yamamoto unites, divine ruler
what was bushido? samurai code ( way of the warrior)
what did japan use as land systems? feudal land systems
Shinto was japans what? religion
japan worshiped who? kami ( spirits of ancestors)
what where the motives for the crusades? muslim invasion of Christian territories knights get penance for kill count or dying on a crusade
where did pope urban send the knights and why? on holy crusade to middle east to reclaim the holy lands
muslims preserved greek and roman....? texts
whos work did the crusaders bring back? plato, Aristotle
what does schism mean? split
what led to the great schism? there differences like only orthodox priests could marry, orthodox bibles in greek, not latin, and pope outlawed praying to icons
what does pope mean? papa
where did the bubonic plague come from? middle east by traders
how much did the plague kill of Europe? 1/2 the population
who brought the plague to Europe? mongols on silk roads
what caused the plague? rodents, fleas, bacteria, human to human contact
what came of the plague? loss of faith in church to protect people, decline in church power, mass burials, vampire rumors, medical advancements
what was the song about the plague called? fleas on rats