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Prehistory to 1500


What does Neolithic mean? New Stone.
What does Australopithecines mean? Southern apes.
What is the nickname for Australopithecines? Lucy.
When was "Lucy" discovered? 3-4 million years ago.
When was the time of Homo Sapiens? 120,000 years ago (30,000 BCE)
What are Homo Sapiens? Modern humans.
Where did Homo Sapiens originate from? Africa.
Where did the Homo Erectus leave from? Africa; isolated, separate species from ex-Neanderthals.
What does it mean to be Nomadic? No home.
What is some specific info about Homo Sapiens? They spread/ take over, and they are nomadic so they follow food. Men hunted, Women gathered.
How do we know that we all come from the same place (Africa)? Because there is DNA to prove this is true.
How are we all African Americans? How are we all Native Americans? Because if we follow our ancestors all the way back, we all originally come from Africa. And we were all born in America.
What does Neolithic mean? New stone.- its all about the tools people use.
When was the Neolithic Age? 8000-5000 BCE.
What is some specifics about the "Neolithic Revolution"? It was an Agricultural revolution, most important event in history, "When your food and security is taken care of, your culture will flourish".
What is the results of the Neolithic Revolution? Cities, Religion, Metal tools, etc.
What is a civilization? Food surplus, advanced cities, advanced technology, skill workers, complex institutions (government/ religion), system of writing/ record keeping.
What is Mesopotamia? The birthplace of civilization
Where was Mesopotamia located? Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (modern day Iraq).
What made Mesopotamia so special? Political and military organization.
What happened in 6,000 BCE? Irrigation was discovered. (moving water)
Why were early civilizations started around rivers? Rivers make the land nearby fertile with minerals.
Who was Hammurabi? The King of Babylon.
When was the time of Hammurabi? 1700 BCE.
Where was the Babylon Empire? Most of Mesopotamia.
What does centralized Bureaucracy mean? Compartments/ Departments.
What does the Code of Hammurabi state? An eye for an eye.
Why was the Code of Hammurabi unfair? High class= Less punishment.
When did Ancient Egypt begin? 3100 BCE.
Where did Ancient Egypt begin? In the Nile Delta.
What was the writing that Ancient Egypt used? Hieroglyphics.
What was he writing that Mesopotamia used? Cuneiform- wedge shaped.
What direction does the Nile flow? North.
How long is the Nile River? 4,000 miles.
What is the Ancient Egypt social structure a model of? A pyramid.
When was the Rosetta stone found? 1979.
What is the Rosetta Stone? It was used to translate hieroglyphics.
How many and what were the translations found on he Rosetta stone? 3 translations: hieroglyphic, demotic, and classic Greek.
What is another name for Ancient India? Harappa.
When did Ancient India begin? 3,000 BCE.
Where did Ancient India begin? The Indus River.
What is Ancient India in todays world? Pakistan. (close to India)
What was special about Ancient India? It had grid cities.
Who were the Aryans? European nomads.
What did they do to Ancient India? They migrated there, brought the caste system, an they controlled the Natives.
What is the caste system? Rigid social hierarchy. (ranking system)
What is a Caste? A social level.
What is the social levels of Ancient India? Aryans: 1. Priests 2. Warriors Dravidians (natives): 3. Workers 4. Untouchables
What are the untouchables? Considered sub-human, they have to touch the dead bodies/ waste, and they should not be touched or spoken to.
How was your social level determined? How dark your skin was, if you was very dark, you were thought to have done bad things in your past life.
What was Meso-America? Mexico, Central America.
What were the Civilizations that were in Meso-America? Olmec- 1200 BCE- Mexico (old Mexico) Maya- 300-900 CE- Mexico Aztec- 1100s CE- Mexico Inca- 1400s CE- Peru
Why did Meso-America start later? Because it was inhabited later, and it had bad geography. (mountains/deserts), and here were no beasts of burden (pack animals) other than the llama.
What were the silk roads? Trade routes for India's empires.
What was another name or a Camel? Desert ships.
Why were camels important on the silk road? Camel caravans traveled from China to India, Asia, and Europe.
What was traded on the silk roads? Luxury items such as silk, jewelry, spices, etc.
What was exchanged on the silk roads? Culture and Religion.
What are the Chinese Dynasties? Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic, Mao Zedong, De.
What are some specifics about the Shang Dynasty? 1st Dynasty, writing, *Oracle bones- questions carved. (tells the future)*
What are some specifics about the Zhou Dynasty? Mandate of Heaven- (can keep ruling if fair)
What are some specifics about the Qin Dynasty? Built the Great wall which kept out the Nomads. (the great wall is the only man made structure seen from space)
What was special about the Greeks? Made up of city states, not one whole country.
Who was Homer, what did he do? Homer wrote Odyssey and Iliad.
What was special about Athens? Athens was a source of Western Culture ( West Europe and U.S). This invented drama.
What are some specifics about Sparta and Athens? They are all about war, strict, men in military until 60, *Isolated, oligarchy (two kings)- ruled by few.
What is some specifics about Athens? Athens is all about Democracy (ruled by the people), Direct Democracy. (all vote), lost to Sparta; Peloponnesian War.
What did Athens do for Greece? Athens unified Greece.
What did Alexander the Great do? He Unified Greece, made it one country. He conquered most of the Mediterranean by the time he was 20, he spread he Greek empire the furthest (from India to Egypt), and he started the Hellenistic (golden) Age.
Who are Philosophers? They believed in rational thought- explaining nature without saying the Gods did it.
Who was Socrates? He was a Marter (someone who dies for a cause), he told people, "question everything", he committed suicide instead of trial for corrupting youth. Never wrote anything down.
Who wee Socrates's greatest students, in order? Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great.
Who was Aristotle? Believed that men were better than women.
Who was Plato? Wrote down Socrates word. Most famous and smartest student of Socrates.
Who are the Romans? Ruled by kings, then Republic. (people elect people to make the laws)
Who were the upper class people in Rome? Patricians- upper class- land owners.
Who were the lower class people in Rome? Plebeians- lower class- poor, peasants.
Who was the Senate in Rome? Made laws. (Patricians)
What was the 12 Tables? The first set of Roman laws.
What is some specifics of the "12 Tables"? Innocent until proven guilty, the right to defend yourself in court.
Was the 12 Tables more advanced than Hammurabi? Yes.
What did the Jews in Israel resist? They resisted Romans.
When was the Jesus of Nazareth born? 1 CE-ish.
Who proclaimed Messiah after Jesus's death? A small group of Jews.
When was Jesus's death? 33 CE.
What happened after Jesus's death? A branch of Judaism turned into Christianity.
Where is Mali located? West Africa.
What does Mali have? Gold, and salt trade.
What is the capital of Mali? Timbuktu.
Why was Mansa Musa so special? He brung tons of money into mecca, which doubled the size of mecca. He went to mecca as Muslim, brought tons of gold.
Who were the Mongols? The largest land empire ever. Their military was unstoppable.
What made the Mongol's military so good? They were best with guns and horses.
What was the name of the army that conquered Russia? Golden Horde.
Why didn't they take over Europe? *Ogedi died.
How did Ogedi die? By freak accident, arrow flies through the air and hits him in the neck, that's all Ogedi did was die.
What happened after Ogedi died? The army returns to Mongolia because they have to select a new leader, this is why they didn't take over Europe.
Why didn't the Golden Horde take over Japan? Freak accident, a huge storm came and this stopped the Mongols (killed them all) (Kamikaze)
Who was important Mongols? Genghis, Ogedi Kahn(son), Kublai Kahn(grandson).
Who was Genghis? Started and spread Empire.
Who was Ogedi Kahn? Died in Poland.
Who was Kublai Kahn? Took China, called it the Yuan Dynasty.
What is special about the Japanese? Small tribes, not one big country. (like the Natives)
What happened in Japan in the 600's? Yamamota unites, divine ruler.
What happened in Japan in the 800"s? Civil war, Aristocrats hire samurai (knights), Bushido- Samuri Code.
Was Japan Agriculture based? Yes.
What social system did Japan use? The Fuedal land system.
What religion did the Japanese practice? *Shinto, they were animistic- spirits in all things, Worshiped kami- spirits of ancestors.
What were the motives for the Crusades? Muslim invasion of "Christian" territories. Knights get penance for kill count or dying on a crusade.
Who sent knights to holy crusade to Middle East to reclaim the Holy Lands? Pope Urban 2nd.
What texts did the Muslims prefer? Greek and Roman.
What kind of texts did the Crusades bring back? Plato/ Aristotle.
What did this lead to? Renaissance (cultural rebirth), science, technological advancements, mathematical advancement, and banking.
What was the Great Schism? Before 1054, Holy Roman Church and Eastern Orthodox, Church in Greece and Turkey together.
What did these differences lead to? It led to a split, only Orthodox priests could marry, Orthodox bibles in Greek, not Latin.*Iconoclasm- Pope outlawed praying to icons(pictures)
Who excommunicated each other because of this? Pope and Patriarch.
What wee the causes and effects of the black plague? Bubonic Plague, transmitted from the Middle East by traders.
How many people did the Bubonic Plague kill? Over half of Europes population.
What was it transmitted by? Rodents, fleas, bacteria, human to human.
What did this lead to? Loss of Faith in Church to protect people, decline in church power, mass burials, vampire rumors, medical advancements.
Created by: 1415dakotabishop