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Prehistory to 1500

Study Material

What does Neolithic mean ? New Stone
What does Paleolithic mean ? Old Stone
What does Australopithecines mean ? Southern Ape
What was the name of the first known human like creature who was a Australopithecine? Lucy
Where did homo sapiens sapiens originate from ? Africa
When was "Lucy" alive ? 3-4 Million years ago
What one thing that was important in the Neolithic age ? Agriculture
Homo Erectus left where? Africa
What was considered one of the most important events in history ? The discovery of agriculture
What is civilization? Food, Cities, Technology, Workers, Institution's, System of writing and record keeping
Once people had food and security what did they no longer have to worry about ? Safety
Where was the birthplace of civilization ? Mesopotamia
Where is Mesopotamia located and what modern county would Mesopotamia be located in ? Between the Tigris and the Euphrates, Iraq
What is race determined by ? Climate
How are we all African Americans ? If we follow our ancestors back we are all from Africa
What will flourish if your food and security are taken care of ? culture
How are we all Native Americans We were all born here in America
Describe Homo Sapien Sapins they spread and took over, they were nomadic and followed food, men hunted and women gathered
What strait did Homo Sapien Sapiens cross ? Bering
What innovation was developed in Mesopotamia? Irrigation
Why are rivers where early civs start ? fertile land with minerals
What was the Mesopotamian writing system called ? Cuneiform
What is a centralized Bureaucracy ? different departments that make up a government
What was the idea for the code of Hammurabi ? Eye for a Eye, Higher-class less punishment
Who was the ruler of Babylon Hammurabi
What was the from of writing used in ancient Egypt ? Hieroglyphics
What was Egypt's social structure in the shape of ? Pyramid
What was the Rosetta stone used for ? It had three translation, hieroglyphs, Demotic, and Classic Greek. This allowed those to finally read Hieroglyphs from Ancient Egypt.
Where was the ancient civilization Harappa located ? Ancient India in modern day Pakistan along the Indus River
What was special about ancient India ? GRID CITIES
Who were the Aryans ? European nomads that migrated to Harappa.
What idea did the Aryans bring with them ? they brought the Caste system
What is a caste ? A rigid social Hierarchy (social level) , certain people are higher than others
Who did the Aryans control ? the natives
Who were the Dravidians ? The natives to Harappa
What levels where the caste system divided into ? 1-Preist 2- Warriors ( only Aryans ) 3- Workers 4- untouchables ( only Dravidians )
Who was outside the caste system ? the untouchables
How were untouchables viewed ? sub-human and should not be touched or spoken to
What is a job for a untouchable ? touching dead bodies and waste
Where is Meso America located ? Mexico and Central America
In order what are the ancient Meso America civilizations. Olmex, Maya, Aztec, Inca
Why were the Meso American's less advance than the Europeans ? Meso America was inhabited later, They had bad Geography, and they had no BEAST OF BURDEN
What was the Silk Road ? Trade Routes to India
Why were Camel Caravans important on the silk road ? They carried items from China to India, Africa, and Europe
What type of items were traded on the silk road ? Luxury items such as spices, Jewelry, and Silk
Other then goods, what else was traded on the silk road ? religion and culture
In order, what are the names of the Chinese dynasties ? Shang,Zhou,Qin,Han,Sui,Tang,SongYuan,Ming,Qing republic, Mao Ziedong, De
What is important about the Shang Dynasty ? 1st dynasty, writing , and Oricle bones
What is important about the Zhou Dynasty ? Mandate of Heavan (can keep ruling if fair and can only be removed by the gods)
What is important about the Qin Dynasty ? The Great Wall of China was constructed during this dynasty to keep nomads out .
What are the Greeks a source of (Athens) ? Western culture
Was Greece a United county ? No, just several city states
What did Homer write ? Odyssey and Iliad
What is considered the "West" ? Western Europe and the United States
Who invented Dramas ? Greeks (Athens)
What was Sparta known for ? Being engaged in wars
At what age were you relieved of your military duty in Sparta ? 60 years old
What kind of leadership did Sparta posses ? Oligarchy ( two kings ) - ruled by few
What type of goverment did Athens have ? Democracy ( direct vote )
What was an accomplishment of Athens ? They unification of Greece
Who did Athens lose to in the Peloponnesian War ? Sparta
What were some Accomplishments of Alexander the Great ? The unification of Greece and and conquering most of the Mediterranean by age 20
Who spread the Greek empire the furthest ? Alexander the Great, India to Egypt
What age did Alexander the Great begin ? The Hellinistic Age
What is a description of a philosopher ? One who has a love of wisdom and rational though
Who wants to explain nature without saying the gods did it ? Philosophers
Who are the individuals involved in the acronym SPAA ? Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander
Who was Socrates ? Socrates developed the socrative Method and was a Matyr who committed suicide instead of going on trial for corrupting youth ( Asking them to question everything)
How were the Romans ruled ? First by Kings then by a Republic
What is a Republic ? People are elected to make laws for citizens
What is the definition of a Partrician ? A upper class member who possesses land
What is the definition of a Plebiein ? A lower class member who is poor ( peasants )
What is the function of the Roman Senate ? To construct laws ( Patricians )
What were the 12 Tables ? The first set of Roman Laws - Innocent until proven guilty, Right to defend ones self in court
Who were the Roman Jews ? Jews in Isreal who resisted the Romans
When was Jesus born and what was Extremly important about Jesus ? 1CE, Jesus is the Messiah
What happened after Jesus"s death ? A branch of Judaism developed into Christianity
Where is Mali located and what resources did they posess ? West Africa, Gold and the Salt Trade
Where is Mali's capital located ? Timbaktu
Who was Mansa Musa ? Mansa Musa doubled the size of Mali, Traveled to Mecca and literly brought TONS of gold
Who had the largest land empire ever ? The Mongols
Who possessed a unstoppable military and what were they most proficient in ? The Mongols, Guns and Horses
What was the Golden Horde ? The Mongols best army who conquered Russia
Why did the Mongols not overtake Europe ? Ogedei was killed (Arrow ) then the Mongols returned to Mongolia for another ruler to be named
Why did the Mongols not take over Japan ? Huge storms (Kamakazi) (divine winds ) stopped the Mongols
Who were the important Mongol leaders and why were they significant ? Genghis Khan ( Grandpa) started and spread the Mongol Empire, Ogedi Khan (son) died in Poland, Kublai Khan (grandson ) took China and called it the Yuan Dynasty
What form of warfair did the Mongols employ ? Biological warfair
How was the Japan organized ? Small Tribes, not one big country
What happened in the 600s in Japan ? Yamamoto United Japan, He is A so called divine ruler
What happened in the 800's in Japan ? Civil war
Who did the Aristocrates in Japan hire ? Samurai ( Military servants )
What is Bushido ? The Samuri code ( The way of the warrior )
What was Japan's primary food source based on ? Agriculture (Rice)
What was the religion of those inhabiting Japan ? Shinto- Anamistic - spirits in all things, they worshipped Kami the spirits of the ancestors
What system of control was used in Japan that was similar to others being used at this time period ? The Feudal System
Compare European and Japanese Feudalism European - King, Lord, Knight, serfs, code- chivalry Japanese - Emperor, Daimyo, Samuri, peasants, code- Bushido
Who invaded Christian Territory that was a motive for the crusades ? Muslims
What would Knights get for kill count or dying on a crusade ? Penance
Why did Pope Urban 2 send knight on holy crusades to the Middle East ? To reclaim the holy lands
Where was the Bubonic plague transmitted from ? The Middle East
Who preserved Greek and Roman text ? Muslims
Who brought back text such as Plato and Aristotle Crusaders
What did bringing back texts with Greek influence inspire ? The Renaissance
What occurred during the Renaissance ? Science, technology advancements, mathematical advancements, banking
What occurred during the Great Schism ? The Holy Roman Church and the Eastern Orthodox Split
Was the Holy Roman Church and the Eastern Orthodox church once together? yes
In what church could the priest marry ? Orthodox
What language was the Orthodox bibles written in ? Greek, not Latin
What is Iconoclasm ? The pope outlawed praying the icons ( pictures )
Who did Iconoclasm anger ? The Eastern Orthodox church
What did the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople do to each other ? They excommunicated each other, causing rift that still exist today.
What did the Bubonic Plague do to Europe's population. The Bubonic Plague killed over half of Europe's population
What was the Bubonic Plague transmitted by ? Rodents, Fleas, Bacteria, Human to Human
What did the Bubonic Plague result in ? The loss of faith in the church to protect the people
What are some results of the Bubonic Plague? Decline in church power, Mass burials, Vampire Rumors, Medical advancements, "fleas on Rats" song
Was there only one Crusade? No, there was many Crusades
What two religious groups where fighting during the Crusades ? Muslims vs. Christians
Who sent Knights on holy crusades to the Middle East to reclaim the Holy Lands Pope Urban 2nd