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Prehistory to 1500

world history notes

What does Neolithic mean? New Stone
What does Paleolithic mean? Old Stone
When did the Australopithecines live? 3-4 million years ago
What was the first discovered Australopithecine called? Lucy
What does Australopithecine mean? Southern ape
When did Homo Sapiens live? 120,000 years ago
When did Homo Sapiens Sapiens cross the bearing strait? 25,000 BCE
What are Homo Sapiens Sapiens? Modern humans
Where did the Homo Sapiens Sapiens originate from? Africa
What does nomadic mean? To follow food, no home
When was the Neolithic Age? 8,000-5,000 BCE
What was the most important event in history? Agriculture (Neolithic Revolution)
What is a civilization? 1. food surplus 2. advanced cities 3. advanced technology 4. skilled workers 5. complex institutions-government, religion 6. system of writing-record keeping
What was the birthplace of civilization? Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was located between which two rivers? Tigris and Euphrates
Where would Mesopotamia be located today? Modern day Iraq
When did irrigation start? 6,000 BCE
What species left Africa? Homo Erectus
What was so significant about the Neolithic Age? The tools the people used
When the people settled they had time to what? Think
Where did most early civilizations settle? next to rivers
Why did most civilizations start next to rivers? The land nearby was fertile with minerals
Who was the King of Babylon? Hammurabi
When did Hammurabi reign? 1700s BCE
What was the Code of Hammurabi? Eye for an eye
What was the difference between the low and high class? The high class received less punishment
What is a Centralized Bureaucracy? compartments/departments that make up a civilization
When did Ancient Egypt begin? 3100 BCE
Where did Ancient Egypt begin? In the Nile Delta
What was Ancient Egyptian writing called? Hieroglyphics
What is significant about the Nile river? It flows North
How long is the Nile river? 4,000 miles
The Egyptian social structure is in the shape of what? A pyramid
Who is at the top of the Egyptian social structure? Pharaoh
Who is at the bottom of the Egyptian social structure? soldiers, farmers, and tomb builders
Harappa is also known as what? Ancient India
Ancient India was located next to what river? Indus River
Where would Ancient India be located today? Modern day Pakistan
What was the Caste System? A rigid social hierarchy/ranking system
Who was at the top of the Caste System? Priests and warriors (Aryans)
Who was at the bottom of the Caste System? Workers- natives (Dravidians)
Who was outside of the Caste System? The untouchables
When did the Olmec reign? 1200 BCE- Mexico
When did the Aztecs reign? 300-900 CE- Mexico
When did the Mayans reign? 1100s CE Mexico
When did the Incas reign? 1400s CE- Peru
What were the Silk Roads? Trade routes for India's empires
Camel caravans traveled where? From India to China, Africa and Europe
Camels were also known as what? Desert ships
What was carried on the Silk Roads? Luxury items like spices, silk, jewelry, etc.
What was exchanged on the Silk Roads? religion and culture
What was the first Chinese Dynasty? Shang Dynasty
Which dynasty created the Mandate of Heaven? Zhou
Which dynasty constructed the Great Wall? Qin
What did the Great Wall do? Kept out nomads
Ancient Greece was broken up into what? City states
What did Homer write? Iliad and the Odyssey
What was the source of Western culture? Athens
The Greeks invented what? Drama
Sparta was all about what? War
How long did Spartan men stay in the military? Until age 60
Athens was all about what? Democracy
What does democracy mean? Ruled by the people
What does it mean to have a direct democracy? Everyone votes
Athens did what? Unified Greece
Athens lost to Sparta in what war? Peloponnesian War
Alexander the Great conquered most of the Mediterranean by the age of what? 20
What did Alexander the Great start? Golden Age
Philosophers were lovers of what? Wisdom "rational thought"
What did Philosophers want to do? Explain nature without saying the gods did it
How did Socrates die? He committed suicide
Who were other famous philosophers? Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great
The Romans were ruled by kings at first, but then by what? a republic
What is difference between a direct democracy and a republic? Direct democracy- everyone votes / Republic- people pick representatives
What were Patricians? upper class- land owners
What were Plebeians? lower class- poor, peasants
The senate made what? Laws
What were the 12 Tables? first set of Roman laws
What did Jews in Israel do? Resist Romans
Jesus of Nazareth was born when? 1 CE
Mali is located where? West Africa
What was Mali's capital? Timbuktu
Who doubled the size of Mali? Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa went to where as a Muslim? Mecca
What did Mansa Musa bring back? Tons of gold
The Mongols had the largest what? Land empire
The Mongol military was what? Unstoppable
The Mongols were best with what? guns and horses
Which army conquered Russia? Golden Horde
Why didn't the Mongols take over Europe? Ogedei died
Why didn't the Mongols take over Japan? huge storms (kamikaze) (divine winds)
Where did Ogedei die? Poland
Kublai took China and called it what? Yuan Dynasty
What are the Chinese Dynasties? Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic, Mao Zedong, De
Who started the Mongol Empire? Genghis Khan
Japan started as what? small tribes
Who was the divine ruler in the 600s? Yamamoto
Aristocrats hired who as military servants? Samurais
What is Bushido? Samurai Code
What did the Japanese grow a lot of? Rice
What kind of land system did the Japanese use? feudal
What was the main Japanese religion ? Shinto
What does Animistic mean? spirits in all things
What was the main motive for the Crusades? Muslims invaded Christian territories
Who sent knights on a holy crusade to the Middle East to reclaim the holy lands? Pope Urban II
Knights get what for kill count or dying on a crusade? Penance
Muslims preserved Greek and Roman what? texts
Crusaders brought back texts such as? Plato and Aristotle
The crusades led to what? The Renaissance
What came along during the Renaissance? science, technological advancements, mathematical advancement, banking
What two churches were in Greece and Turkey? Holy Roman/Eastern Orthodox
Only Orthodox priests could what? Marry
Orthodox Bibles were written in what language? Greek
What was Iconoclasm? when the Pope outlawed praying to icons
What did the Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople do? Excommunicated each other
What is another name for the Black Plague? Bubonic Plague
Where was the bubonic plague transmitted from? The Middle East
Who transmitted the bubonic plague? Traders
The bubonic killed how much of Europe's population? Over half
The plague was brought to Europe by who? Mongols on the Silk Road
The plague was transmitted by what animal? the fleas on rats
During the plague what was lost in the church? Faith
What kind of rumors started during the plague? vampire rumors
There was a decline in what during the plague? Church power