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Prehistory to 1500

What does Neolithic mean? New Stone
What does Paleolithic mean? Old Stone
What does australopithecines mean? Southern Ape
What are australopithecines? First Upright Hominids
Who was the first upright hominid found? Lucy
How many years ago were the first upright hominids? 3-4 million
How many years ago were homo sapiens? 120,000
What are homo sapiens sapiens? Modern humans
When were the homo sapiens sapiens? 30,000 BCE
When did they cross the bearing strait? 25,000 BCE
Where do homo sapiens originate? Africa
What does nomadic mean? No home
Where did everyone come from? Africa
When was the Neolithic age? 8,000-5,000 BCE
What was the most important even in history? Neolithic Revolution
What are some examples from the Neolithic Revolution? Agriculture, Cities, Religion, and Metal tools
What is a civilization? Food surplus, advanced cities, advanced technology, skilled workers, complex govt./religion, writing/record keeping
What was Mesopotamia? The Birthplace of Civilization
Where was Mesopotamia? Between the Tigris and Euphrates
What is modern day Mesopotamia? Iraq
What is irrigation and when was it created? Moving water. 6,000 BCE
Why do early civilizations start near rivers? The nearby land is fertile with minerals.
Who was Hammurabi? King of Babylon
When did Hammurabi reign? 1700s BCE
Where was the Babylonian Empire? Most of Mesopotamia
What does Bureaucracy mean? Departments
What was the set of laws of the Babylonian Empire called? The Code of Hammurabi
What was the code of Hammurabi? Eye for an Eye, high class=less punishment
When did Ancient Egypt begin? 3100 BCE
What form of writing did Ancient Egyptians use? Hieroglyphics
which way and how far does the Nile flow? North 4,000 miles
What river is Ancient Egypt near? The Nile
What was Ancient Egypt's social structure? A pyramid
What translated hieroglyphics? Rosetta Stone
What was Ancient India called? Harappa
What river was Harappa near? Indus River
What is modern Harappa? Pakistan (near India)
Who lived in Harappa? Aryans
Who migrated to Harappa, brought the caste system, and controlled the natives? European Nomads
What is the caste system? social level ranking system
What were the 3 levels of the caste system? Priests, Warriors, Workers
What were the people outside of the caste system called? The Untouchables
What was Mesoamerica? Mexico and Central America
Why did Mesoamerica start later? Inhabited later, bad geography, and no beasts of burden (pack animals)
What was the Silk Road? Trade routes for India's empires
What was exchanged on the silk road? silk, jewelry, religion, and culture
What was the first Chinese dynasty? Shang
What are the 3 main Chinese dynasties? Shang, Zhou, Qin
Was Greece one big country or city states? City States
Who wrote Odyssey and Iliad? Homer
Who invented drama? The Greeks
Who was all about war? Sparta
Who was all about democracy? Athens
Who conquered most of the Mediterranean by age 20? Alexander the Great
Who had rational thought? Philosophers
What did philosophers want to explain? Nature without saying "the gods did it"
Who questioned everything? Socrates
Who were the 4 big philosophers? Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Alexander the Great
What method did Socrates create? Socratic Method
What is a direct democracy? Everyone votes.
What is a Republic? We pick our representatives.
Did Sparta or Athens win the Peloponnesian war? Sparta
Who spread Greek empire the farthest? Alexander the Great
Who Started the Hellenistic (golden) Age? Alexander the Great
What was the Roman's government? Ruled by kings, then republic
What were the upper class/land owners of the Romans called? Patricians
What were the lower class/poor of the Romans called? Plebians
Who made Roman laws? Senate
What was the first set of Roman laws called? The 12 Tables
What are two examples of Roman laws? Innocent until proven guilty, Right to defend self in court
Who did the Jews in Israel resist? Romans
When was Jesus born? 1 CE
What did Jews call Jesus? The Messiah
When did Jesus die? 33 CE
What did some Judaism develop into after Jesus' death? Christianity
Where is Mali? West Africa
Why is Mali so rich? Gold/salt trade
What is Mali's capitol? Timbuktu
Who doubled the size of Mali? Mansa Musa
Where did Mansa Musa take tons of Gold? Mecca
What was the largest land empire ever? The Mongols
How was the Mongols military? Unstoppable, best with guns and horses.
What was the Mongols best army? Golden Horde
Why didn't the Mongols take over Europe? Ogedi died.
Why didn't the Mongols take over Japan? Huge Storm (Kamikaze)
Who was Grandpa of the Mongols? Genghis Kahn
Who was Son of the Mongols? Ogedi Kahn
Who was Grandson of the Mongols? Kublai Kahn
Was the Japanese on big country or small tribes? Small tribes
The Japanese was _____ based. Agricultural
Who did the Aristocrats hire? Samurai/military servants
The Japanese used ________ land system. Feudal
What was the Japanese religion? Shinto
Who did the Japanese worship? Kami (spirit of ancestors)
What was a motive for the Crusades? Muslims invaded Christian territories
Who sent knights on a holy crusade to reclaim the holy lands? Pope Urban II
Who preserved Greek and roman texts? Muslims
Who brought back texts such as Plato/Aristotle? Crusaders
Preserving and bringing back texts led to___________. Renaissance
What was the Renaissance? Science, Technological advancements, Mathematical advancements, banking
What was the Great Schism? The Split between the Holy Roman Church and Eastern Orthodox
What 2 churches were together before 1054? Holy Roman Church and Eastern Orthodox
What differences led to the Great Schism? Orthodox priests could marry, Orthodox bibles in Greek, Iconoclasm (no praying to icons)
Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople _________ each other. Excommunicated
What was the Black Plague called? Bubonic Plague
Where did the plague come from? Middle East traders and Mongols on the Silk Road
The plague killed over _____ of Europe's population. Half
What was the plague transmitted by? Rodents, Fleas, Bacteria, Human to Human
Loss of _______ in Church to protect people. Faith
Plague caused these 4 things. Decline in church power, mass burials, vampire rumors, medical advancements.