Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Language

Chapter on language's role in human geography

QuestionAnswer
Language a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Culture the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
Standard language the variant of a language that a country’s political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
Dialects local or regional characteristics of a language
Isogloss a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Mutual intelligibility the ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
Dialect chains a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
Language families group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Subfamilies divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
Sound shift slight change in a word across languages within a sub-family or through a language family form the present backward toward its origin
Proto-Indo-European linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages form Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America th
Backward reconstruction the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants toward the original language
Extinct language language without any native speakers
Deep reconstruction technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
Nostratic language believed to be the ancestral language not only of the proto-indo-European but also of the Kartvelian languages of the Sothern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages, the Dravidian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
Language divergence new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages
Language convergence the collapsing of two languages into one resolution from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
Renfrew hypothesis hypothesis that proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families
Conquest theory one major theory of how proto-indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of blank spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of blank
Romance languages languages that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but where not subsequently overwhelmed
Germanic languages languages that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south
Slavic languages developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
Lingua franca a term deriving from “Frankish Language” and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic
Pidgin language when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole language a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
Monolingual states countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual states countries in which more than one language is spoken
Official language in multilingual countries the language selected, of en by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion
Global language the language used most commonly around the world
Toponym place name
Created by: s4stevos
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards