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World History

"Industrial Revolution" Topic 9

TermDefinition
Industrial Revolution The transition to new manufacturing processes which included going from hand production methods to machines, improved efficiency of water power, the use of steam power, and the development of machine tools.
Anesthetic Drug that prevents pain during surgery
Enclosure The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly owned by peasant farmers
James Watt Mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution
Entrepreneur A person who assumes fantail risk in the hope of making a profit
Eli Whitney Inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin
Urbanization A population shift from rural to urban areas that results in the physical growth of urban areas both horizontally and vertically
Tenement Multistory housing development that is divided into into crowded apartments
Labor union A worker's rights organization
Utilitarianism The idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
socialism System in which people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
Communism Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx
Henry Bessemer English engineer, inventor, and businessman who developed a process for the manufacturing of steel
Thomas Edison Developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the electric light bulb.
Interchangeable parts Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Assembly Line Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series os smaller tasks
Stock Shares in a company
Corporation A business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investment
Cartel A group of companies that join together to control the price and production of a product
Wright Brothers American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane
Created by: Mr. Peirce