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Chapter 21

Denne's Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution

Geocentric the idea that earth was the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution the time period that was a new way of thinking about the natural world; careful observation and questioning beliefs
Heliocentric the idea that the sun was the center of the universe
Galileo Galileo the man who proved sun was the center of the universe by using a telescope; was forced to say his ideas were wrong because the Church threatened to kill him
Enlightenment a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
Voltaire Believed that people within a society should have the freedom to choose what religion they want to practice.
Montesquieu philosopher who wrote the Spirit of Government; had idea of separation in government (Legislative, Executive, Judicial)
Rousseau philosopher who believed that people are generally good; wrote the Social Contract; that government places too many limits on people; individual rights above government
Adam Smith Was an economist who believed in minimizing the role of government intervention and taxation in the free markets.
John Locke Developed a political theory that the people are the consent of the governed.
Francis Bacon Created the scientific method
Isaac Newton Created the laws of motion and more importantly, understood gravity
Thomas Hobbes Said that people were naturally bad, cruel, greedy, and selfish and that they needed to be controlled by a social contract and strict government
Nicholas Copernicus Mathematician who developed a heliocentric conception of the universe.
Johannes Kepler German, used data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit
Ptolemy Greek astronomer who expanded the geocentric theory in the second century A.D.
During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they examined natural laws governing the universe.
The scientific method was used to solve problems. Effects of the Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton and René Descartes?
Seventeenth-century scholars Galileo Galilei and René Descartes faced serious challenges to their scientific theories because their ideas contradicted traditional medieval European beliefs.
Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilei, and Johannes Kepler are all directly associated with the Scientific Revolution.
Mary Wollstonecraft Wanted women to have the right to receive an education like men.
Cesare Beccaria Believed that people accused of crimes should have rights.
Montesquieu Believed in separation of powers within the government.
Rousseau He was against the absolute power or control of the Church and government, and he believed that the government should do what the majority of the people wanted.
Galileo Galilei used a telescope to discover mountains on Earth’s moons, moons revolving around Jupiter, and sunspots.
The concept of “divine right to rule” within a constitutional monarchy is similar to the Mandate of Heaven
The common features of an absolute monarchy include strong armies, limited representation, and high taxes
Seventeenth-century scholars Galileo Galilei and Nicolas Copernicus faced serious challenges to their scientific theories because their ideas went against traditional medieval European and Christian beliefs
Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilei, and Johannes Kepler are all directly associated with astronomy
What contribution to Enlightenment thought was given by Montesquieu? governments should be divided into parts so that no one person can gain all of the power
What was Diderot’s contribution to the enlightenment? Spread enlightenment ideas with his Encyclopedia, a collection of articles and enlightenment thought
Aside from astronomy, the Scientific Revolution saw advances in Chemistry, medicine, and physics
Developed a constitutional monarchy. England, Netherlands
Developed an absolute monarchy. Russia, France, Spain
The goal of the Enlightenment thinkers was to change society.
________________ was a religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. Deism
Laissez-faire is an economic doctrine that says the people should control the economy.
___________________ was a mathematician who showed that the orbits of the planets were elliptical. Kepler
____________________ theories were important because they all contributed to proving that the universe was centered around the sun. Copernicus’, Kepler’s, and Galileo’s
Created by: m0llymarie