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Church History 1

MIdterm of Events and People in Church History from 54-1492

Name of Person or EventDatesImportance
Edict of Toleration 311 End of persecution of Christians
Edict of Milan 313 End of persecution of Christians
Council of Nicea 325 First Ecumenical Council; condemned Arius and affirmed the doctrine of homoousia
Council of Constantinople 381 Second Ecumenical Council; affirmed divinity of the Holy Spirit
Rome invaded by Visigoths 410 End of Western Roman Empire
Odoacer splits with Constantinople 476 End of Western Roman Empire
Council of Ephesus 431 Third Ecumenical Council; condemned Nestorius and affirmed Mary as theotokos
Council of Chalcedon 451 Fourth Ecumenical Council; affirmed the two natures of Christ
Mohammed flees to Medina 622 Beginning of the Islamic calendar
Mohammed takes Mecca 630 Beginning of the Islamic advance
Battle of Tours 732 Muslims finally halted in Europe
Founding of Cluny 909 Began a significant period of monastic reform.
Conversion of Olga 950 Beginnings of Christianity in Russia
Great Schism 1054 Split between East and West in the Church
Jerusalem conquered 1099 Beginning of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
Fall of Jerusalem 1187 End of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
Last Crusader defeat 1291 End of the Crusades
Avignon Papacy 1309-1377 Called “Babylonian Captivity of the Church”; weakened papacy
“The Black Death” 1347-1351 Virulent plague that wiped out 30%-60% of Europe’s population
Great Western Schism 1378-1423 Period of multiple Popes, weakened papacy
Fall of Constantinople 1453 End of Byzantine Empire
Columbus in America 1492 Beginning of colonization of America
Nero ↔54-68 First Emperor to persecute Christians; committed suicide after being deposed
Domitian ↔81-96 Persecuted Christians in order to restore Roman traditions; was murdered in his own palace
Clement of Rome c.100 Second or third bishop of Rome; wrote Epistle to the Corinthians
Ignatius 30/35-107 Martyred bishop of Antioch; wrote seven letters on the way to martyrdom
Trajan ↔98-117 Emperor whose establishes the policy for Christian persecution in the Roman Empire
Marcion fl. 144-150 Early Christian heretic; denied authority of Old Testament and compiled the first list of books for a “New Testament”
Polycarp †156 Disciple of John; most famous early Christian martyr
Justin (Martyr) †165 Christian apologist and martyr; wrote two Apologies and Dialogue with Trypho
Irenaeus c.130-late 100s Disciple of Polycarp; early theologian who wrote Against Heresies and Demonstration of Apostolic Faith
Perpetua and Felicitas †203 A well-to-do woman and her slave who were executed for being Christian, most famous early women martyrs
Clement of Alexandria †215 Alexandrine theologian highly influenced by Neo-Platonism; wrote Exhortation to the Pagans
Tertullian fl. 195-220 Early and influential North African theologian, wrote Prescription Against the Heretics
Origen c.180-251 Disciple of Clement; wrote De Principiis, the first Christian systematic theology
Septimius Severus ↔193-211 Emperor who persecuted Christians since they would not worship Sol Invictus
Decius ↔249-251 Emperor who persecuted Christians to restore the favor of the old Roman gods.
Cyprian c.205-258 Influential Bishop of Carthage; wrote Concerning the Lapsed and The Unity of the Church
Diocletian ↔284-305 Emperor who initiated the last great persecution of Christians in the Early Church.
Helena c.250-330 Mother of Constantine, established many models of early Christian “piety”.
Constantine ↔306-337 Emperor who reunited empire and made Christianity legal; moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople
Eusebius of Caesarea 262-340 Wrote Ecclesiastical History; sought to moderate in the Arian controversy
Athanasius c.295-373 Defender of Nicean orthodoxy; wrote Discourses Against the Arians and Life of St. Anthony
Basil the Great 330-379 Cappadocian theologian who defended Nicene Orthodoxy; father of Eastern monasticism
Macrina †380 Sister to Basil the Great, who started her brother on his monastic pursuits
Gregory of Nazianzus 330-389 Cappadocian theologian and Patriarch of Constantinople; wrote De Vita Sua and Five Theological Orations
Gregory of Nyssa 335-394? Cappadocian theologian; father of Christian Mysticism; wrote Ascent of Moses
Martin of Tours 335-397 influential early monastic bishop
Ambrose †397 Bishop of Milan who influenced Augustine; wrote On Faith and On the Holy Spirit
John Chrysostom c.350-407 Famous Preacher, whose name means “Golden Mouth”; became Patriarch of Constantinople in 398
Jerome 347-420 Translated the Bible into Latin (Vulgate)
Augustine 354-430 Most influential theologian of the Early Church; wrote Confessions and City of God
Leo I, the Great ↔440-461 First true “Pope”; wrote Tome to address the Council of Chalcedon
Nestorius 381-440 Promoted the idea that Christ’s two natures were not united; wrote Bazaar of Heraclides
Benedict of Nursia c.480-c.547 Wrote a Rule which became the standard for Western Monasticism
Gregory I, The Great 540-604 Able Pope who establishes the direction of the Western church for the Middle Ages
Patrick 373-463(?) Missionary to Ireland, helped to establish a strong “non-Roman” version of Christianity.
Isidore of Seville †636 Wrote Etymologies, an early encyclopedia
Charlemagne ↔800-814 First Holy Roman Emperor; initiated much Church reform
Anselm of Canterbury fl. 1060-1100 Forerunner of Scholasticism; crafted the Ontological Proof for the Existence of God; wrote Cur Deus Homo
Peter Abelard 1079-1142 Forerunner of Scholasticism; clashed with Bernard of Clairvaux; wrote Sic et Non (Yes and No)
Bernard of Clairvaux 1090-1153 Cistercian abbot, influential mystical thinker, and founder of the monastery at Clairvaux
Peter Lombard †1160 Wrote Quatuor Libri Sentiarum (Four Books of Sentences), the standard medieval theology text
Hildegard von Bingen 1098-1179 Influential female abbess, mystic and composer.
Innocent III ↔1198-1216 Most powerful pope in history; called the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Dominic †1221 Founder of the Order of Preachers
Francis of Assisi †1226 Founder of the Order of Friars Minor
Thomas Aquinas 1224-1274 Most influential theologian in the Roman Catholic Church; wrote Summa Theologica
Meister Eckhart c.1260-c.1327 Rhineland mystic; talked about the “spark of the divine” in the soul
John Duns Scotus 1265/6-1308 Advocated the divorce of faith and reason; called the “Subtle Doctor”
William of Occam c. 1280-1349 Advocated the divorce of faith and reason; developed “Ockham’s Razor”; influenced Martin Luther
Jan van Ruusbroec 1293-1381 Flemish mystic; wrote The Spiritual Espousals
John Wycliffe †1384 Early reformer who denied transubstantiation and advocated for Scriptures for the masses
John Hus †1415 Early reformer who denied power of the Pope and was executed by the Council of Constance
Savonarola 1457-1498 Early reformer who preached against abuses in the church and was executed for “heresy”
Destruction of the Temple 70 End of “Sadducean” Judaism, beginning of “Rabbinic” Judaism
Created by: Marvo
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