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Indigo Module

Nutrition Review

QuestionAnswer
metabolic disorder A condition characterized by the body’s inability to synthesize or process food into forms the body can use for energy, growth, and development
hiatus hernia A condition in which the upper part of the stomach, which is joined to the esophagus or feeding tube, moves up into the chest through a hole in the diaphragm
Bard button A feeding device placed permanently in the stomach to facilitate supplemental feedings
gastrostomy tube (G-tube) A feeding tube inserted though an incision in the abdomen into the stomach
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG tube) A feeding tube inserted via endoscopy into the stomach or jejunum
jejunostomy tube (J-tube) A feeding tube placed through the abdominal wall into the small bowel
nasogastric tube (N-G tube, Levine tube) A feeding tube put through the nose into the stomach
fluid retention An accumulation of fluid in body tissues or body cavities
dysphagia Difficulty swallowing
enteral feed Feeding by tube directly into the gastrointestinal system
gastric suction Gentle suction applied to a tube placed in the stomach to remove excessive secretions (saliva and gastric juices) that tend to accumulate in the stomach after surgery/trauma because the intestine is sluggish, this can prevent/relieve nausea and vomiting
metabolic rate The amount of energy expended in a given period, or the physical changes that occur in the body that result in heat production. Also, determined by gender, environment, lifestyle and genetics
bowel sounds present (BSP) The audible return of gastrointestinal movement or function, also called peristalsis; often charted as BS x 4, meaning it sounds audible in all four abdominal quadrants
metabolism The physiological and biochemical processes that promote growth and sustain life
cardiac diet with or have pre-existing heart disease - low in fat and cholesterol and may restrict sodium and calories
diabetic diet inability to properly use glucose - individually prepared, number of calories, fats, carbohydrates and proteins
gluten-free diet celiac disease - complete elimination of gluten
high-calorie diet excessive weight loss from illness or can't maintain a healthy weight - butter, cream, fried foods
high-protein diet need to gain weight, recovering from surgery - meat, fish,milk, eggs, legumes and nuts
no added salt/Na restricted diet fluid retention or congestive heart failure - no processed cheeses, cured or smoked meats, sport drinks or chemically prepared products
progressive diet after major surgery or illness of the gastrointestinal tract - introduce as pt. can tolerate from sips, clear fluid, full fluid, soft to regular diet
pureed diet cannot chew or dysphagia - all foods ground to a soft, silky texture
Why would a TPN feed be ordered? severely malnourished, coma, anorexia, before or after major surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, severe burns or multiple fractures
What does NPO mean? When would you post an NPO sign? nothing by mouth, post before tests or surgery
activity more activity = more calories. Inactive = fewer calories.
age 2yrs to adolescence need more calories, older adults need less calories.
gender men need more than women, hormones play a role
genetics our predetermined body structure affects our basal metabolic rate and so does thyroid gland function
illness need extra calories and sometimes extra protein to promote tissue repair and recovery
pregnancy must adjust their calorie intake with diet high in protein and appropriate calories, esp. breast feeding
How many grain products should an adult eat in a day? 6-8
How many food groups are there? 4
What is the “other” food group? oils and fats
BRAT banana, rice, applesauce, toast
BSP bowel sounds present
CDA Canadian Diabetes Association
CF clear fluids
CF-DAT start with clear fluids and progress to diet as tolerated
DAT diet as tolerated (regular diet)
dc, d/c discontinue
DD diabetic diet
EF enteral feeds
FF full fluids
FF-DAT start with full fluids and progress to diet as tolerated
Fr. French
GF gluten-free diet
G-TUBE gastrostomy tube
HF high fibre
HP high protein
LR low residue
MN minced
NAS no added salt
N-G TUBE nasogastric tube
NPO nothing by mouth
PAR Parenteral feeds
PE puree
REG regular diet
SS surgical soft
T & A tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy diet
Created by: Barbara Ross
 

 



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