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World Chap 10 and 12

Kingdoms/Crusades/Middle Ages

What were the territories in Central Italy, controlled by the Pope,called? Papal States
What was the appointment of church officials by secular rulers called? Lay Investiture
What was the Holy Office to deal with Heretics called? Inquisition
What government system has hereditary rulers? Monarchs
The soldiers who fight primarily for money were called? Mercenaries
What is a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote called? Republic
Which state was the cultural center of Italy? Florence
What was the local spoken language called or referred to as? Vernacular
What was the intellectual movement based on the study of literature of ancient Greece and Rome? *Chapter 15 Humanism
Which German printer developed movable type? Johan Gutenberg
What was the plague that struck Europe in the 14th century known as? The Black Death
What was the most powerful of the Italian port cities that came to prominence during the crusades? Venice, Genoa, and Pisa
What was the name of the Muslim leader who took Jerusalem during the second crusade? Saladin
What was the political system in which local lords own and control the land and allow others to live and farm there in exchange for payments and other services? Feudalism
Explain why the practice of Feudalism began to decline in Europe? Serfs were allowed to leave land to fight in the crusades, breaking down the system of labor
Under the leadership of Pope Urban II, the Catholic Church embarked on what event? The Crusades (1)
How did people of the middle ages try to explain the cause of the black death? God was punishing people
Which group made up the majority of the European population? Peasants
What is Feudalism ? System of land and resource control
What cultural change during the Middle Ages allowed for more people to enjoy works of literature? Print
What did movable type for printing in Europe lead to? Higher literacy rates
Whose request for military assistance from the Europeans provided the excuse for launching the Crusades? Byzantine Emperor
Why did the crusader kingdoms depend on Italian port cities like Venice and Pisa for supplies? They were "islands" in Muslim lands - Needed supplies
What style were most cathedrals built in during the Middle ages in Europe? Gothic
As the first Crusade began, what did Pope Urban II promise People? Entrance into Heavan
Created by: PLHSWorld