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World History

World History up to 1600 Final

Early American Societies Origins -final phase of migration from Africa -early homo sapiens arrived on foot or boat from Asia -2 Ice Age Periods -current theory: arrived in western hemisphere scross the bering strait land bridge around 15,000 BCE & spread through North & South Americas
Settlement Through the Americas -North America: agriculture, variety of settlement types, Inuit, Pueblo, Mississippian -Mesoamerica: Maize (corn), advanced civilizations: Olmec, Maya Teotihuacan -South America: Irrigated fields, extreme environmental conditions, Chavin, Nazca/Moche
North America Early Civilizations -Diverse environments -hunters-gathers, ex: Inuit -Tribal groups: Pueblo Others: Navajo/Apache, Cheyenne, Cherokee, Natchez
Ohio/Mississippi River Valley -Ohio River Valley: Adena, small villages, agriculture surplus, specialized labor, & constructed projects -Mound builders, "Great Serpent Mound" -Hopewell: series of towns ruled by chief, foraging community
The Mississippians -lived in Mississippi River Valley -Agriculture Society: corn, beans, squash -largest city was Cahokia: ceremonial & administrative center, mound builders
Mesoamerican Chronology -Preclassic Era: Olmec (Southern Gulf of Mexico), giant stone heads -Classic Era: Maya (Yucatan Peninsula), Teoltihuacan (Valley of Mexico) -Post Classic Era: Toltec, Aztec
The Olmec -Gulf Coast Region - rainfall, rich river silt, agriculturally rich -complex society develops: priest-ruler hierarchy -Olmec culture: trade networks, long count calender (adopted by the Mayans)
The Maya -Agriculture is the foundation of Mayan culture -Social hierarchy: priest-king, nobles, commoners, serfs, & slaves -polytheistic: many gods, human & ritual blood sacrifice
Teotihuacan -located in Valley of Mexico -city-state of Teotihuacan -maintained an army -huge ceremonial/urban center with 200,000 people & lots of pyramids
South American/Andean Civilizations -harsh environment: Andes Mountains., rain forest, deserts -hunters-gathers -rise of small isolated tribal groups -Chavin, Moche, Nazca
The Dark Ages -decentralization of local power, population decline -creation of new culture
Power of Catholic Church -slow rise & expansion of Catholicism within Roman Empire -church bureaucracy: kingdom split into Diocese, each run by a Bishop, Diocese grouped into provinces that are run by an Archbishop
Gregory the Great -protected Rome from the Lombards, extended Pope power beyond area of Rome -encouraged missionary activity
Monasticism -Rise of Monastic communities -Devout men: Monks, Monasteries -Devout Women: Nuns, Convents -Devoted time to spreading the faith, agriculture, hospitality, charity, healthcare -centers of Education
Benedictine Rule -"Father of Monasticism" -Pious man from a wealthy Italian family, gives up luxury to live in poverty & prayer -he comes up with "The Rule" - regulations for monastic life
Rise of the Franks: Merovingians -The Franks strongest of Germanic Kingdoms, begin to expand political & territorial power -two major eras: Merovingian Dynasty & Carolingian Dynasty
Carolingians: Charlemagne -know as ppepin the short -conqured the Saxons in Germany & the Limbords in France -largest united empire since Rome
Decline after Charlemagone -Carolingian power declines after Charlemagne dies -his son Louis the pious divided the empire among his 3 son, created a civil war -Treaty of Verdun splits Charlemagne Empire in 3 -9th & 10th centuries foreign invaders: Vikings, Muslims, Magyars
Caroligian "Renaissance" -he saw himself as Christian King -Just ruler: Instituted laws on a wide rang of topics, established courts to ensure justice
Manorialism -rise of new arrangements for security & stability -Manoralism created ties of reciprocal loyalty -Life of Nobility defined by warfare/protection -Feudal system
Turning point of 1000 BCE -Agriculture revolution of 1000 BCE -improved farming technology: switched from ox to horses, padded horse collar -improved farming techniques
Byzantine Empire Emperors & Threats -Emperors: Constantine, Justinian, Leo III, Herclius -Threats: Sanian empire (Persian), Muslims (Arabs), Seljuk Turks, Ottoman Empire
Constantine & Christianity -Roman Emperor -he declared himself "First Christian Roman Emperor" -During Edict of Milan, legalized Christianity in Roman Empire -church & state combined in empire -Constantinople built in 330 CE
Constantinople -city well protected by water & walls on the Balkan Peninsula -400,000 population, highest standard of living in medieval Europe -abundant food supply -exported silk
Justinian -Greatest Byzantine Emperor -came up with codified laws -his wife was Theodora, born to a poor family, "the Bear Keeper's Daughter -Theodora converted to Christianity & came to be know as Empress Theodora
Urban Revolts -urban society: organized by group of urban gangs -two gangs, the "Blues & the Greens," revolt against Justinian -Justinian nearly gives up & flees, Theodora encourages him to stay
Reclaiming Roman Glory -Justinian spent 30 years trying to reclaim lost western half of roman Empire -Justinian secured eastern flank from Persians first by diplomacy & bribery -reclaimed North Africa, Southern Spain, Italy
Code of Justinian -Justinian wanted to rule by Roman law, which at the time was confusing -he creates the Corpus Juris Civilis, Justinian law code
Western Church vs. Greek Orthodox -Hagia Sophia seat of head of the Orthodox Church in Constantinople -In West head of the church is the Pope -In East head of the church is the emperor -Byzantine emperor selected Patriarchs (bishops)
8th Century: Iconoclasts vs. Iconophiles -religious conflict over Icons -Icons: pictures or statues of religious figures -Emperor Leo III was afraid of icons being used for idol worship, he ordered all armies to destroy all icons -Iconoclasts: Supporters -Iconophilies: "Icon Lovers"
The Muslims -Islam begins to shape -spread across the Mediterranean -lay siege to Constantinople twice
The End of the Empire: The Turkish Conquests -11th century begins Byzantine decline -Seljuk (central Asia nomadic group) conquers Persia & Mesopotamia in 11th century -Ottoman Empire leading power by 1300, in 1453 sacks Constantinople (becomes Istanbul)
Pre-Islamic Arabia -spoke Arabic -Arabs -Bedourns: desert-dwelling nomads, pastoralism: economic system based on raising livestock
Mecca & Muhammid -Mecca - a rest stop & religious center, tribes pilgrimage to the Kabah, controlled by Quryash tribe -Muhammad - businessman & merchant upset by injustice in Mecca, the angel Gabriel comes to him in the Mts.
Islam -Islam Monotheistic religion, worship on God Allah, Muhammad is the final prophet -Islam (means submit) -Muslim (means submitters -Muhammad's revelation of God's last word, shows Islam monotheism in its purest form
Quran -Revelations memorized, 20 years latter first written down in Quran -Organized by length o recitation, not topic of chronology -Allah is compassionate & fair, will separate true believers on judgement day
5 Pillars of Islam 1. Precision of the Faith - the is no God, but Allah & Muhammad is his prophet 2. Five Daily Prayers 3. Charity 4. Fasting (during Ramadan) 5. Pilgrimage (to Mecca, once in your life)
Return to Mecca -hostility between Medina & Mecca -Muhammad's followers return to Mecca -Purge & Re-concentrate the Kabah
Chronology of Muslim rulers -Muhammad dies in 632 CE -Caliphs (means successor of the prophet) -Orthodox Caliphs -Umayyad Caliphs - Umayyad family revolt, split Umma into two fractions the Sunni & Shi'ite -Abbasid Caliphate
Orthodox Caliphate -"Right Guided Caliphs" -"Jihad": "striving" or "struggle" -Universal religion: Quran dictates that Allah's revelations be shared with all of humanity -conversion to Islam encouraged, but not forced -Islamic Empire grows
Umayyad Caliphate -Umayyad family rebelled -Split within Umma -Sunni: majority group, believed anyone could rise to Caliph -Shi'ite: minority followers of Alla
The Abbasid Take Over -Abbasids allied with Shi'ite Muslims overthrow Umayyad Caliphate -Improved system of Governance -Moved capital to Baghdad
Decline & fall of Abbasid -Abbasid power decline in 9th & 10th century -outer provinces break away -Mongols arrive, sack Baghdad
Culture patterns of Africa -common values, belief system -social and politically organized by family: extended family, Patrilineal (descend through male) vs. Matrilinal (descend through female) -polytheistic religion
Bantu Migration -The Bantu ("the people") were African tribal group originally from central Africa -migrated -spread a common language, culture beliefs, & understanding of agriculture
Northeastern Africa -In region of Ethiopia -Kingdom of Aksum: rose to power based on international trade, capital was Aksum
Aksum & Religions -Aksum King Ezana converted to Christianity and it become the official kingdom religion -7th & 8th century the Islams cut them off from the Red Sea trade
Zaqwe Dynasty -rise from highland nobles to form Zaqwe Dynasty -claimed ties to Aksumities & Christian past legitimize power -Greatest leader, Lalibela, orders constructions of the rock churches at Roha
Solomonid Dynasty -Solomind overthrows Zaqwe -Legitimizes claims to power through dynastic connection to king Solomon -Zara Yakob: reign best represents Solomonid culture
West Africa & Trans-Saharan Trade -Settlement along Niger River -Introduction of camel made travel across Sahara -North had salt -South had gold
Kingdom of Ghana -tribal chiefdom ruled by war chief -control of trans-Shara trade resources made Ghana wealthy
Kingdom of Mali -controlled desert gold trade -greatest ruler Mansa Musa -Timbuktu: urban center for Islamic culture and learning
Songhai -Rebel state of Kingdom of Mali -becomes largest of the West Africa Kingdoms -Dunni Ali: struggled with Muslim elites -Askia Muhammad: Fully embraced Islam, made it state religion
Decentralized Regional kingdoms in India -After fall of Mauryan Empire north transformed into regional kingdoms ruled by a local ruler -strengthen Indian culture & commerce with other countries -land trade routes connected to silk road
Rise of Gumpta Dynasty -Main Gumpta Rulers: Chandra Gumpta I, Samudra Gumpta, Chandra Gumpta II -warlike culture -followed Mauryan power, strong central government
Prospect & stability in Gumpta Dynasty -Gumpta Dynasty brings prosperity to Northern India -agriculture & peasants taxed 1/4 harvest -Improved Infrastructure: roads & irrigation -Foreign Trade: seas & land routes
"The Golden Age": Science, Mathematics, & Medicine -Nalanda University, come up with quadratic equations, shape/rotation of the earth -Math: sign foe zero, numerical system -Medicine: health regimes, herbal remedies, advanced drug treatments, surgery
Fate of the Buddha in India -split in community after Siddhartha Guatama dies -Theravada: abides by Buddha's original principles -Mahayana: Not individual enlightenment, but community/devotional salvation
Hinduism -Heterogeneous system of beliefs, Hinduism adapts & increases in popularity -stressed devotion to a particular deity -"Indian Trinity": Shiva, Vishnu, Devi -The deities had avatars (reincarnations)
"The Golden Age": Religious Books & Heroic Epics -golden age for literature -The Puranas (Ancient Tales) -Bhagavad Gita ("Song of the Lord"): part of Mahabhrata which is the world's longest epic poem
Society in Gupta Age -Status of Untouchables declines -Family is the primary social unite in Indian society -Elite Men: "Four Stages of Life," each lasted 27 years: 1. student, 2. household, 3. hermit, 4. wonder -Women: status worsens
Decline of Gupta Power -The Huns attack, but are defended off -smaller kingdoms break Gupta control -8th century Muslims invade & create Hindu/Muslim conflict
Imperial China Dynastic Chronology -Age of Disunity -Sui -Tang -Song, there were two periods know as the Northern Song & the Southern Song
Age of Disunity in China -conflict between different Chinese groups & non-Chinese nomadic groups -formation of six successive dynasties, led by powerful families & warlords -population decline
Buddhism -After the fall of the Han, people turn to new religions for relief -Buddhism (Mahyana) first introduced into china during Han Dynasty -Chinese adapt the Buddhist religion & form the Pure Land Sect/Amidism
Daoism -goes from a philosophy to a devotional religion -localized -worship deities, give offerings
Sui Dynasty -Two generation of rulers: Emperor Sui Wendi & Sui Yangdi -Brief dynasty, but accomplish many important feats -reunited china by military force -rebuilt Great Wall, built Grand Canal
Tang Dynasty -Two main Emperors: Tang Gaozu & Emperor Tang Taizong -Expanded their territory -Capital at Chagan where bureaucratic state forms
Tang Bureaucracy -Capital City - Chagan -"Forbidden City" - Emperor's palace -"Imperial City" - bureaucratic center -Department of state affairs with six ministries -any male could take the civil service exam to obtain a government position
More information on Tang -Era of economic productivity, wet rice is produced & Tea becomes a staple -rise in urbanization, 10% live in cities -continued foreign trade
Tang Decline/Song Rise -Tang Power declines in the 8th & 9th century because of huge dept from defensive military campaigns & lack of revenue from taxes (people give free land) 10th century decentralized chaos -military officer unifies China & forms the Song Dynasty
Northern Song Dynasty -Zhou Kuangyin became know as Emperor Taizu -smaller territory, surrounded in north by military powerful non-Chinese states -problem of appeasement to other states -12th century the Jurchen come to power north of the Song
Southern Song Dynasty -Jurchens annex entire Yellow River Basin, establish their own Qin Dynasty -Song flee south, new capital at Hangzhou -Accomplishments: Agriculture: double cropping & terracing rice fields, Technology: gunpowder weapons & the first printed books
Southern Song Society -urban -Marco Polo: Venetian travelers took 24 year journey through Asia -Status of Women declines
The Mongols & their Society -Nomads, Pastoralism -occasionally traded -warrior society, raided villages, clans/tribes fought each other, Calvary -Clans->Tribes->Confederations (rare) -name for the leader was Khan
Temujin (later know as Genghis Khan) -son of a minor clan; orphaned; abused -he becomes a powerful warrior & leader and elected leader of the Mongol Confederation
Accounting for Military success of the Mongols -Genghis Khan was a strategist, diplomat -Fighting skills: advantage on horseback, weapons, skilled at siege warfare, smart tactics: feint & surprise return -used terror & intimindation
SE Asia: Khanate of the Great Khan -Kubila Khan, grandson to Genghis, "Great Khan" -Created Yuan Dynasty in China -4 class system: 1.Mongols, 2.Non-Chinese minorities, 3.Northern Chinese, 4.Southern Chinese -Failed expansion -Accomplish: commerce, use of paper money, building projects
Middle East: Il Khan Empire -Genghis Khan's son, Ogodei, continues campaign in Middle East -Overrun Persians, defeat Seljuk Turks -Begin campaign against Abbasid, Baghdad falls -Many Mongols convert to Islam
West Asia (Russia) & the Golden Horde -Batu Khan, (grandson) pushes into west Asia -Mongols rule indirectly, live on steppe -did not adapt Russian ways -Iuan III deafest the Mongols in 16th century
Khanate of Jagadai -Jagadai is the second son Genghis -poorest & least populated of the Khanate, locked in by other Kanate Empires
Mongol Chronology 1. Conquest of Genghus Khan 2. Khanate of the Great Khan 3. Khanate of the Il Khan 4. Khanate of the Golden Horde 5. Khanate of Jagadai
Aztec Origins -12th century Mexica people migrated to valley of Mexico -Foundation Myth: originally from island called Aztlan, God Huitzilopotchli encouraged them to search for promise land in valley of Mexico -Built capital on lake Texcoco, called Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan,"City in Lake" -built in a lake -grew to large urban center -agriculture: crops planted on "Chimpas," floating platforms in lake -transportation: movement via canoes around city -Defense: isolated in the lake, only access point series of causeways
Aztec Rise to Power -Aztec starts as a tributary state to Atzcapotzalco -Aztec forms triple alliance with the city-state Texcoco & Tlacopan, deaf eat Aztcapotzalco -Aztec ruler rises to power
Aztec Empire -Nahuatl speaking -"non-integrated empire":conquered but no direct rule -focused on inner provinces then outer provinces
Aztec Society -Ruler is elected, non-hereditary position, a great warrior -3 class system: - 1. Nobles: warriors, officers, priests - 2. Commoners: merchants, artisans, farmers - 3. Slaves: based on bad conduct
Aztec Religion -Polytheistic, saw world cradled between 13 levels of Heaven & 9 levels of the Underworld -Tenochtitlan had ceremonial center -Worshiped the Sun God, Huitzilopotchli
Inca Empire -massive empire, 3,000 miles -creation myth: Inca provided "promise land" near Cuzco by God -series of powerful leaders built empires -conquest through persuassion
Adaption to the Andes -Incas mastered difficult mountain terrain to unify empire -master engineers: canal, aqueducts, cities high in the Andes -for communication: built road system & suspension bridges
Life in the Inca Empire -Politics: all state authority with Emperor -Society divided between nobles & commoners -Agriculture: state controlled command system, harvest warehouse; potato -Religion Polytheistic, Sun God called Inti
Spanish vs. the Aztecs -Spanish land on Yucatan Peninsula, led by Hernan Cortes -Aztec ruler Montezuma unsure how to react to the Spanish -Aztecs & Spanish battle, Spanish assisted with other native groups -Spanish bring with them Smallpox, superior weapon
Spanish vs. the Inca -Portuguese explores reach South America & introduce Smallpox -Smallpox reaches Cuzco, Spa Inca dies creating a civil war -Spanish adventurer Fransisco Pizarro sets out for South America, he battles with the Incas -Inca Empire gone by 1535
Revival of Towns & Trade -urban revival due to agriculture advantages, population growth, & trade -urban cities gain independence -new markets created -Rise of Guilds
Holy Roman Empire -Fall of Carolingian Dynasty leads to regional Duchies under German Dukes -Otto I of Saxony: conquest & alliance with Roman Catholic Church -Henry IV: "Investiture Controversy," Pope excommunicates him -Fredrick Barbarossa I: Campaign against N. Italy
Capetian France -10th century over 30 feudal princes & territories -Hugh Capet, count of Paris, elected king -Louis VII marries Eleanor of Aquitaine -largest expansion of royal domain under Phillip 11 Augustus
England -11th century England under Anglo-Saxon control -Crisis of succession: Harold vs. Williams, battle of Hastings, beginning of Norman rule in England -Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine creating English & French ties
Power of Roman Catholic Church -Pope Gregory VII: instituted major church reforms & expanded papal power -Pope Innocent III: created highly organized administrative system -large Gothic Cathedrals built -Rise of Catholic schools
The Crusads -11th-13th century Series of Military campaigns to recapture The Holy Land, Jerusalem, from Muslim control -Pop Urban 11 calls Christians to take up arms -1st crusade they capture Jerusalem -7th crusade last attempt to regain Jerusalem, failed
Plague -1300-1600 most disruptive period in European history -changes in weather patterns end agriculture prosperity - leads to drought, famine, starvation -Black Death kills 1/3 of Europe's poulation
Italy & Spain -Italy dominated by city-states, powerful in the North -8th-12th century Muslims control Spain -12th-15th century Reconquista of Spain by Christian states
Created by: NickUD