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Haitian Revolution

Saint-Domingue western part of the island of Hispaniola; modern Haiti
vodoun/voodoo method of psychological and cultural escape for slaves; a blend of Catholicism and African religious practices
maroonage physical escape for slaves; flight from plantations to the surrounding hills; escaped slaves called maroons
Fran├žois Makandal an escaped slave, who, in the 1750s, built a network of resistance to slavery; planned to poison the water supply of Le Cap; captured and burned at the stake in 1758
Le Cap the main town of northern Saint-Domingue
1791 slave revolts broke out across Saint-Domingue; inspired by the natural desire for freedom
British troops arrived in the western part of Saint-Domingue; welcomed by the white planters; came to suppress the revolt and drive out the French
mulattoes those of mixed race parentage; were free people; some owned slaves; sought their own rights of representation; divided over the issue of slavery
Toussaint L'Ouverture freed black; established alliance with Spanish rulers of eastern Saint-Domingue vs. slave system and French; linked himself to France, when slavery was abolished, as continued to fight slaveowners; effective ruler by May 1800
Napoleon's Involvement reversed French policy on slavery; sent troops to put down the slave revolt; his representative tricked Toussaint into suspending the revolution; Toussaint was exiled to France, where he died
black and mulatto armies after Toussaint was exiled, continued the revolt under new leadership; drove out France's forces; once again abolished slavery
January 1, 1804 Saint-Domingue proclaimed its independence; renamed itself Haiti; completed the only known successful slave revolution in history
Haiti Carib name for "mountain"; modern name of Saint-Domingue; western half of the island of Hispaniola
Britain's involvement in the revolt and afterward initially tried to assist in putting down the rebellion; when failed, decided to limit the spread of slavery in hopes of preventing any later slave revolts
United States' involvement after the slaves succeeded fearing that the successful Haiti revolt would spread north, the country prohibited trade with Haiti in 1806
Created by: rklevens