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French Rev/Napoleon

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Estates General This was summoned by Louis XVI to meet in 1789. First Estate: clergy. Second Estate: nobility. Third estate: everyone else. Angered by Louis XVI’s actions, the Third Estate separated itself into the National Assembly.
Bread Riots The price of bread in 1789 was near record heights. Some farmers refused to pay their taxes and their manorial dues, and many city people were hungry. Beggars and brigands began to roam the countryside and move toward Paris.
National Assembly Made up of the Third Estate. Met at a tennis court and drafted a Constitution for France, called the Tennis Court Oath, on June 20, 1789. This was seen as the beginning of the Revolution.
Tennis Court Oath A Constitution for France drafted by the National Assembly (Third Estate).
Fall of Bastille Members of the Third Estate formed a provisional government and organized a volunteer militia to obtain arms from the Bastille, a fortress. On July 14 they demanded arms from its governor. He opened fire on them, and in retaliation, they captured the fort
Great Fear Fearing a monarchical and aristocratic counterrevolution, peasants and villagers organized militias and attacked and burned manor houses.
October Days/March of Women Angered by the soaring price of bread and rumors of the king’s unwillingness to cooperate with the Assembly, Parisian women marched to Versailles on October 5, 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Influenced by the American Declaration of Independence and Enlightenment ideals, the National Assembly issued its charter of liberties, the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, in September 1789.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy In July 1790 the National Assembly enacted this, making all bishops and priests subject to the authority of the state. The Assembly’s aim was to make the Catholic Church of France a national and civil institution, rather than a religious one.
Counterrevolution Exiled nobles from France stirred up counterrevolutionary sentiment in other countries. The first countries to express public concern were Austria and Prussia, declaring August 1791 that restoring order and rights to the monarch of France was in the best
Edmund Burke Reflections on the Revolution in France This pamphlet attacked the revolution as a monstrous crime against the social order, and stirred up sympathy for the counterrevolutionary cause.
Jacobins, Girondins, Montagnards, sans-culottes The Jacobins became the most radical party of the revolution, responsible for implementing the Reign of Terror and the execution of the king. The Girondins were mostly formed from the middle classes, many of them originally from the Gironde region. The M
September Massacres Paris crowds, hearing a rumor that political prisoners were planning escape, responded by executing thousands of them. Similar riots happened in other cities.
National Convention The governing body of France after the National Assembly, much more radical. Declared France a republic.
Reign of Terror (September 1793-July 1974) A time of bloody authoritarianism headed by political leaders such as Marat, Danton, and, most famous and radical, Robespierre. A group of twelve leaders, the Committee of Public Safety, gained executive powers during this time.
Napoleon Bonaparte First Consul Napoleon overthrew the weak Directory and became first consul, later declaring himself consul for life, and then Emperor Napoleon I. He promoted social mobility based on merit and improved the educational system. He ambitiously pursued France’s expansion
Napoleonic Civil Code This code created one uniform law and abolished feudal privileges. It also established supremacy of the husband.
Directory A board of five men given executive authority after the fall of the Committee of Public Safety.
Congress of Vienna An assembly of representatives of all the powers of Europe that resolved issues raised by the Napoleonic Wars and their aftermath. It redrew national borders, established a balance of power, and enshrined conservative government in Europe for 30 years.
Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti.
Napoleon’s Demise The Continental System, seeking Britain’s defeat, failed miserably. Napoleon’s overly ambitious wars led to military losses to St. Dominigue and Spain. An attack on Russia led to not only defeat but also his abdication and exile. His return from exile end
Created by: dheydar