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Chapter 12

Crusades and Culture in the Middle Ages

the practice where non-Church clergy could appoint people to Church positions lay investiture
a decree by the pope that said priests weren't allowed to give the sacraments to certain people interdict
a Christian rite, such as baptism or marriage sacrament
any belief or practice that went against official Church teachings heresy
bones or other objects of saints that were worshiped by some Christians relics
"Holy Wars" that involved European Christians traveling to the Middle East with the purpose of kicking Muslims out of the Holy Land Crusades
a term used for Muslims during the Crusades, since they did not believe in Christianity infidel
the study of religion and God theology
a system that tried to bring together faith and reason scholasticism
the language of the people vernacular
the vernacular literature of the heroic epic that was popular in medieval Europe chanson de geste
hostility toward or discrimination of Jews anti-Semitism
government where power was centralized under a king or queen in the 15th century new monarchy
an annual direct tax on land or property that provided a regular income for the French monarchy taille
this word refers to the office of the pope papacy
in medieval Europe, the pope was often involved in these affairs political
this pope tried to end the practice of lay investiture in order to help the Church be free of its political ties Gregory VII
this pope used the interdict to try to control groups of people Innocent III
this was a group of monks who emerged in 1098 and who lived strict, simple lives Cistercians
in the Middle Ages, monasteries were the only place were these people could be educated women
this religious order was founded by Francis of Assisi and focused on missionary efforts Franciscans
this religious order was founded by Dominic de Guzman and worked to defend the Church from heresies Dominicans
the Holy Office set up to deal with heretics Inquisition
this was the main way that people were involved with religion in their daily life in medieval Europe through the sacraments
many medieval Christians honored and prayed to these people saints
Christians would often take these, especially to the holy site of Jerusalem pilgrimages
the First Crusade began in this year 1096
Crusaders were able to capture Jerusalem and Antioch in this Crusade the First Crusade
This Crusade is remembered for being a huge failure the Second Crusade
This Crusade, which lasted from 1189-1192, tried to retake lands that had been lost to Saladin's army the Third Crusade
This Crusade was more a fight over Byzantine Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholicism the Fourth Crusade
results of these were the breakdown of feudalism and new wealth from the taxation of trade the Crusades
these two architectural styles appeared in the Middle Ages Romanesque and Gothic
these institutions of education first appeared in the Middle Ages universities
he was the most famous Scholastic scholar Thomas Aquinas
this was a popular form of vernacular poetry troubadour
the Black Death was caused by this the Bubonic Plague
this country was the first in Europe to be exposed to the Black Death in 1347 Italy
the Black Death is estimated to have killed this percentage of Europeans one-third
the Black Death led to the persecution of these people Jews
one of the main impacts of the Black Death were a decline in this economy
The Great Schism between 1378 and 1417 was related to this issue who should be pope
between 1305 and 1377, popes were under French influence and lived here Avignon
this war was between France and England over territory Hundred Years' War
she fought for France in the Hundred Years' War and is remembered as a martyr Joan of Arc
this country would eventually win the Hundred Years' War France
after the Hundred Years' War, this broke out in England the War of the Roses
Russia broke free of this group in 1480 the Mongols
In this country, Ferdinand and Isabel successfully removed Muslims in 1492 Spain
The Houses of York and Lancaster fought a civil war in England called this The Wars of the Roses
Created by: Mrs. Marquardt