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World History

World History up to 1600 Midterm

Origins of Human History -7 million years ago break from apes -Appearance of Modern Humans in East Africa about 100,000 years ago
Paleolithic Culture -no written record -stone tools -food gathering & hunting -nomad groups
Neolithic Age -10,000-6,000 BCE -Agriculture Revolution
Mesopotamia -City states of Ur and Uruk -Each city state independent & had own religion, ruled by a king -Great Ziggurat of Ur was a political & religions center -Came up with pictographic (=pictures for words) which them became phonographic (=pictures to sound)
Sumerian Society -Top: royals (king), priests, aristocrats -Middle: farmers, artisans, merchants -Lowest: slaves, women, children
Religion of Mesopotamia -each state had its own gods -propetiation = at the mercy of the god
Cultural Creativity of Mesopotamia -Bronze Age: Copper combined with tin -Invented wheeled vehicles & pottery wheel -Writing: cuneiform ("wedge shaped"), recorded literature
Mesopotamia Kingdoms 1. Sumerian Civilization 2. Akkadian Dynasty 3. Babalonian Empire 4. Assyrian Empire 5. Persian Empire
Akkadian Dynasty -Akkad Region -Sargon of Akkad -High Point of Dynasty under Sargon's grandson, Naram Sin
Babylonian Empire -Center of power is the city of Babylon -Hammurabi- law code most significant contribution
Assyrian Empire -Lion Hunt artwork -Created the Hanging gardens of Babylon
Nile River -People relied on agriculture -Nile River runs north, opposite of what we believe -Nile River flooded regularly in the summer
Predynatic Egypt >3100 BCE -Menes or Narmer was the first pharaoh, but we don't now because of bad records --Pharaoh means great house
Eras of Egyptian History 1. Old kingdom ("pyramid age") 2. First Intermediate Era 3. Middle kingdom ("Democratization of after life") 4. Second Intermediate Era 5. New Kingdom ("Imperial Egypt")
Old Kingdom -4th Dynasty, Egypt, Pyramids of Giza (the largest one was for Kafu) -Ma'at = highest virtues of Egyptian life -No standing army because they had no fear of outsiders
First Intermediate period (2200-2050 BCE) -Nile flood failed-> crops failed->famine -buildings and maintaining pyramids exhausted the resources of the states -period of civil wars
Middle Kingdom -They had an eye on what went wrong in the past -Swallower of dead to determine who goes on to the after life, based on the weight of a feather
Second Intermediate period (1800-1570 BCE) -crumbled from the outside instead of the inside -outside forces had superior power, like chariots, outsider wanted the valuable goods
New Kingdom -1600 BCE reestablish control -adapted bronze weapons, chariot warfare, Imperial ambitions -Egyptian Empire strethed north into Sinai, south into Nubia, west to the Mediterranean -Ramesses II came to power at an early age -used military tactic
The end of the Egyptian Civilization (1100-30 BCE) -foreign rulers -fell to rome in 30 BCE -Roman empire took over after Cleopatra dies
Egyptian Culture -Agriculture Kingdom, "Gift of the Nile" -Egyptian Solar Calender had 3 seasons -Bureaucratic system -writing: Hieroglyphics (Rosetta Stone) -polytheistic religion -monotheism only during Akhenton's rule
Indus valley Harappan Civilization -lived along the Indus River -large cities along the river -major cities: Mohenjo-Daro, Harappo -cities were on a north-south grid, & had a drainage system
Harappan Culture -agriculture economy: wheat, barely, rice, peas -Cash Crop & trade commodity: cotton -writing:Indus valley script -we don't now much about them or what happened to them
The Vedic Age (~1900-1600 BCE) -early Verdic age: formation period -nomadic people, tribes, rajas, military -Sanskrit -Veda (term for knowledge)
Verdic/Aryan Religion -Polytheistic -Propitiation: made sacrificial offerings to the gods in return for good favors -Indra, the god of thunder
hereditary system born into your class, no social movement
Caste System Order: 1. Priests, Academics 2. Kings, Warriors 3. Merchants, Land owners 4. commoners, peasants, servants, 5. untouchables (they were added later)
Late Vedic age -expansion, maturation, & formalization of Vedic culture -Territorial expansion: beyond Indus river -political complexity: tribal chiefs became kings, urban centers built -caste system expanded -religion: Brahman power increased
Religious Reform 600 BCE in Indus Valley -rejection of "ritualization" of Indian religion -The Upanishads: texts -brahamn - cosmic essence, world soul, eternal
Neolithic China ( appears around 500 BCE) -two major rivers: Yellow river & Yangzi river -Yellow river: drier climate - millet & wheat -Yangzi river: warmer, moist - rice and water chestnuts -Domestic animals: dogs, cattle, pigs
China Dynastic History -Shujing, book of history - early collection of Chinese writings -Xia Dynasty -Shang Dynasty -Zhou Dynasty
Warrior kings of the Shang era -warrior people: superior bronze tools & weapons -Territory around the yellow river -social structure: Vassal system 1. Shang Kings 2. Vassal 3. Serfs
Religion during the Shang -polytheistic - Shang king - religious & political power, best suited to communicate with ancestors -shaman
Oracle bones -primary source documenting early Chinse writings -a crack was put on the bone by the gods -after shaman interpreted the cracks, they engraved the message into the bones -pictographic writing system with 3,000 characters
Zhou Dynasty & the Mandate of Heaven -Mandate of Heaven - altered the way power was given -overthrew the Shang Dynasty 3 significant Zhou rulers: King Wen, King Wu, & the duke of Zhou -western & eastern period -power + legitimacy = governing authority -expanded territory -feudalism
Warring State period of China -7 major states -200 years of constant warfare: iron weapons, cross bows -Rise of the Qin Dynasty
Persian Empire Beginnings -Empire means the conquest of one by another -Indo-European People -settled in Iranian plateau -very inhospitable environments -two subgroups: Medes & Persians, spoke Farsi
The Achaemids & Cyrus II -Persian interbred to gain power -Cyrus II united Medes & Persians -Began campaign to expand Persian Empire -after he died he left empire to his son Cambyses II
The Cyrus Cylinder & Persian Universalism -"Cyrus Cylinder," (text in cuneiform) -proclimation saying people could keep their culture & religion if they remand loyal to the Persian -called Persian Universalism or one world power
rulers of Persia -Cyrus II -Cambyses II: son of CyrusII, only ruled 7 years, expanded Persia into Egypt -Darius I: 28 year old solider came to power by marring Cambyses II's widow & daughter -Xerxes: son of Darius, finished palace
Largest Persian Empire Under Darius I -further expansion, Indus valley, Egypt, Libya -Bureaucratic system: 20 provinces (satrapy) with governors (strap) -royal road & postage system -legal system: local & imperial law -canal between Red & Mediterranean Sea -Ceremonial Palace: Persepolis
Zoroastrianism -Persians were first Polytheistic with two gods: Ahura & Mazda -Prophet Zoroaster said they were one god called Ahura Mazda -universal religion -balanced of good (Ahura Mazda) vs. evil (Ahriman)
Conflict With Greece: The Persian Wars -Persian conquer Lydia & Ionian Greeks rebel -Darius dies -Xerxes attacks confront Athens and Spartans -Xerxes returns to Persia
Philip II -invaded Greece & Greece becomes over taken by Macedonians -Philip II is the father of Alexander the Great
Greek Civilization (200-30 BCE) Chronology -Early/Mythical Greece -Dark ages -Classical age -Hellenistic Age
Minoan Civilization -Lived on the island of Crete -language not deciphered -elegant, refined civilization -"story of the Minotaur" -Minos was the king
Mycenaean Civilization -on mainland Greece, monarchical government -warrior-like -Mycenae trade center, skilled goldsmith/metal workers -Legend of Troy?
The Dark Ages -Epic poem attributed to Greek poet Homer - source of all knowledge -little produced -rise of Greek political system
Classical Greece: "The Polis" -"Polis" independent city-states suited to Greece's landscape -walled cities -economy: limited agriculture (grapes, olives), trade & colonization
Sparta -means "The Scattered" - originally comprised of five small villages -Military Oligarchy, expand their limited economy through conquest -adult males had say -collective mentality organized government, the collective > the individual
Athens -From Aristocracy to Democracy -walled city, Athenians seafarers -transformation of Athenian Government -"citizens": adult males
Philosophy -Greek rationality & scientific reasoning -Socrates - questioned everything until you get to the bottom -Plato - student of Socrates, did not believe in democracy -Aristotle - student of Plato, questioned everything, tutor to Alexander the Great
Crisis of the 5th Century: The Persian Wars -Delian League - aligned the city states head by Athens who took advantage of them -Pelopannesian League - lead by Sparta Against Athens, civil wars, Sparta won against Athens
Hellenistic Age (320-30 BCE) -Philip II Alexander diffused Greek culture through empire -Alexander dies (323 BCE)
Roman World Chronology 1. Estroscan rule 2. Early Republic 3. Late Republic 4. "Pax Romana"/Imperial Rome 5. End of the Empire
Romulus & Remus Etruscan controlled Italian Peninsula -Romans overthrow the Etruscans -Romulus kills Remus to become king
Roman Republic Government -"Republic": aristocratic form of government power, elected representatives -society: Patricians (rich 10%), Plebians (everyone else) -Senate: represented assembly that were elected to handle administration of the Republic& Consul
Struggle of Order in Roman Empire -class based political struggle between patricians & plebians -Law of twelve tablets -Tribune officers: plebian officers elected by plebians & charged with protecting their lives -287 BCE all Romans citizens equal before the law
Punic Wars -Carthage (North Africa/Spain) vs. Rome -1st Punic War: Sicily, Rome wins -2nd Punic War: Carthaginian Commander Hannibal -3rd Punic War: Carthage (North Africa) destroyed
The Late Republic -Roman republic begins to fall as roman territory expands -renewed class conflict, crisis of government
Attempts at Reform of Roman Empire - Tiberius & Graius Sempronious Gracchus (brothers) served as plebian tribute, both were assassinated -idea to distribute land to the poor -"Bread & circuses" -bread lines & festivals
The End of the Republic -Period of civil wars -Generals built armies loyal only to themselves -Julius Caesar
Octavian -Was Caesar's adopted son (nephew), succeed Caesar -Aliened himself with Marc Anthony against Senate
Pax Romana -"Golden Age of Rome" -"Five Good Emperors": 1. Nerva 2. Trajan 3. Hadrian 4. Antonious Pius 5. Marcus Aurelius -multi ethnic diversity -aqueducts built
Christianity -Judea - Jews believed in a single all-powerful god -Jesus of Nazareth -Pontius Pilate, Roman administrator in Judea -Jesus Crucifixion
The Fall of Rome -Pax Romana ends with the death of Marcus Aurelian -Civil war between generals, 20 different emperors -epic disease & barbarian invasions
Western & Eastern Rome -Emperor Diocletian divided the empire in two part: Eastern & Western Rome - two emperors divided the empire -eastern half lives on as the Byzantine Empire
Indus Valley Religious Reform -Upanisheds were reforms that set fourth 3 new basic concepts central to Indian Worship 1. Samsara: reincarnation of soul 2. Dharma: performance of duties pertaining to one's social class 3. Karma: fate or destiny in the next incarnation
Jainism -embraced a life of asceticism - extreme self-denial, reject all creature comforts & material possessions -Ahimsa: central practice of absolute nonviolnce
Hinduism -No one founder or teacher, heterogeneous religion -Worshiped a variety of deities: -Brahman: supreme creator -Vishnu: beneficent preserver -Shiva: destroyer, "lord of dance"
Buddhism -Siddhartha Guatama came up with teachings of the foundations to Buddhism -he lived the life of a prince -at age 29, ventured out to explore the world, series of 4 encounters: 1. An Old Man 2. A Sick Man 3. A Dead Man 4. A Priest
Mauryan Empire under Chadragupta Mauyra -Indian price from Ganges valley that takes over after Alexander dies -he defeats Indian rivals & negotiates with Macedonian generals -provinces->districts->villages -Imperial legal code maintained by series of courts - he becomes a Jain monk
Ashoka -Grandson to Chandragupta -focused on imperial expansion through military conquest -campaign in Kalinga brutal were he becomes disguised by violence -later he converts to Buddhism
The Rock Edicts -Rock Edicts proclaimed policies of Ashoka's new government -carved in rocks or stone pillars, spread across the kingdom
Promoting Buddhism -First Buddhist missionaries sent out during Ashoka's rule -Patronized Buddhist scholarship & art -Built hospitals, rest houses for travelers, monistaries
Fall of the Mauryan Empire -Ashok'a dies & Mauryan Empire begins to collapse -last Mauryan Emperor, Birhadratha Maurya assassinated, -theories for fall: Brahamn revolt against the Empire. transportation & communication issues, financial burden of maintaining an army & bureaucracy
The Four Noble Truths (Buddhism Teachings) -Under a Bohi tree Siddhartha meditates until he has an Enlightenment, he creates the 4 Noble Truths: 1. Life is Suffering 2. The origins of suffering is desire 3. To stop suffering, one must stop craving 4. Eliminated desire with the 8 fold path
Eight Fold Path 1.View 2. Intentions 3. Speech 4. Action 5. Livelihood 6. Mindfulness 8. Concentration
Persian Empire in India -controlled northwestern India -India exports: spices, perfumes, gems, cotton textiles -India imports: wine, tin, gold Macedonians conquer India & win against India Rajas
Confucianism -Founder: philosopher Kung Zi, became know as westerners as Confucianism -he was born to a noble family, he becomes to a wondering teacher -his disciples wrote his teachings down
Confucian Teachings -system built an accepting & understanding social hierarchy -3 main virtues: 1. Ren: "Humanity" 2. Li: "Ritual" 3. Xiao "Filial Piety" -Five Relationships: 1. Ruler-Minister 2. Father-son 3. Husband-Wife 4. Elder-Younger Brother 5. Friend-Friend
Daoism -Fonder: Laozi ("Old Sage") -Text: Daodejing, "The Classic of the Way" -Seeks natural harmony -teaches to allow natural order to take its course -Best government/leader that does not interfere
Legalism -Founder: Xunzi -Harshest philosophical tradition -strict laws were absolutely central to maintaining order within the state -all were equal before the law
Qin Dynasty Achievements -bureaucratic state based on Legalist teaching -empire divide into provinces & districts -military power -uniformity across empire -built roads, canals, northern fortification, Mausoleum
Han Dynasty -Liu Bang takes over & changes his name to Emperor Gaozu -Chronology: Early Han & Late Han -during the same period as the Roman Empire -"Han Synthesis" is created
"Han Synthesis" -combined aspects of Legalism & Confucianism -strong central bureaucracy -Mandate of Heaven & adoption of Confucian doctrine by state
Created by: NickUD