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Circulatory System


Heart Structure Layers Chambers Valves Coronary Arteries
Layers of Heart (3) Epicardium -Thin outer layer Myocardium -Middle Muscle layer Endocardium -Inner layer lining the circulatory system
Chamber of Heart (2) Atria -Upper Ventricles -Lower
Right Atrium Receives deoxygenated blood from body via superior & inferior vena cava
Right Ventricle Receives blood from the right ATRIUM & pumps to LUNGS
Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood FROM lungs
Left Ventricle Receives Blood from left ATRIUM & pumps to the AORTA
Valves Atrioventricular -Enters to the ventricles -Tricuspid -Bicuspid / Mitral Semilunar Valve -Exits the ventricles -Pulmonary -Aortic
Coronary Arteries Branch off the Aorta to feed Heart (L & R)
Pulmonary Circulation -Carries blood from heart to lungs -Reoxygenates blood
Systemic Circulation -Carries oxygenated blood along with nutritions to all cells of body - Removes waste products from all cells
Blood Vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries
Blood Vessels Structure Layers * thicker in arteries than veins -Tunica Adventitia OUTER LAYER Made up of connective tissues -Tunica Media MIDDLE LAYER Made of smooth muscle tissues & some elastic fibers -Tunica Intima INNER LAYER/ LINING
Arteries -Carry blood AWAY from heart -Under pressure from ventricular contractions -Pulse distinguishes arteries from veins
Veins -Returns blood TO heart -Carries deoxygenated blood (Bluish-Red) -Walls thinner -- collapsing
Lumen Internal space of a blood vessel through which blood flows
Valves -Venous valves = thin -Valves help keep blood flowing toward the heart by allowing blood to flow in one direction
Capillaries -Microscopic -One cell thick -Connects veins & arteries -Blood is a mixture of venous and arterial blood -Thin walls = exchange of O2 and nutrients for carbon dioxide and waste
Major Veins in Antecubital Fossa 1. Medial cubital 2. Cephalic 3. Basilic
Medial Cubital Middle -Large - Well-anchored -Closer to surface -least painful
Cephalic Thumb -Fairly well-anchored -Difficult to palpate
Basilic Pinky -More Painful -Above brachial & next to median cubital nerve -Easy to find-- not well anchored
Blood Specimen -Plasma-Fluid from whole blood specimen -Serum- Fluid after blood clots -Whole Blood- Blood in the same form found as in the body
Plasma -Will separate in 3 layers -Clear - slightly hazy, yellow -Plasma contains Fibrinogen & other coagulation factors -Used for coagulation test -No anticoagulant added to blood- will lcot
Serum -Blood will clot within 30-40 mins. -NOT used in coagulation test -clear, pale, yellow remains
Whole Blood -Same form from body -Anticoagulant added = blood won' clot -Some test require whole blood ( Mostly-- Hematology [CBC], blood gasses) -Mix at least 2 mins. before testing
Hemostasis -Natural coagulation process -Keep blood within cardiovascular system when injuries to blood vessel walls
Steps of Hemostasis 1. Primary 2. Secondary
Primary Hemostasis Stage 1: Vasoconstriction -Less blood loss Step 2: Platelet Plug Formation -Temporary plug of platelets
Secondary Hemostasis Stage 3: Fibrin Clot Formation -Better plug for bigger injuries that platelets cannot hold Stage 4: Fibrinolysis -Dissolving of the clot after the site has healed
Created by: 1741370178



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