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Content Exam #4

Franks conquered most of Roman Gaul, good military, converted to Christianity=gain support of Church and christian pop, Carolingan dynasty, convinced Spanish muslims not to conquer more of western Europe
Charlemagne (ruled 768-814) intelligent, expanded and centralized empire based on his personality,
Vikings Originally a group from Vik who invaded Norway, later generally Norse mariners who invaded Western Europe, Mediterranean and Russia
feudalism Political and social order of medieval Europe, feudal system, oversimplifies what actually happened
sacraments holy rituals that bring spiritual blessings on the observants, seven sacraments (baptism, matrimoney, The Eucharist, penance)
Dominicans and Franciscans thirteeth century devout friars who called people to repentance and fought materialism, begged for food
theme system place and imperial province called a theme under the authority of general who answered to an emperor
Saljuq Turks conquered Byzantine Anatolia and Abbasid Persia
reconquista Reconquest of Spain
Urban II Pope Urban II launched crusades in 1095
Chinggis Khan "universal ruler" brought the Mongol tribes together and broke them up
Khubilai Khan one a Chinggis' grandsons, good at admin, promoted Buddhism, presided over Mongol empire at its height
Yuan dynasty from 1279-1368, Khubilai Khan ruled Mongol and southern China
the Golden Horde invaded Germany, Russia, Poland, and Hungary, steppes north of Black Sea
Ilkhanate of Persia Hulegu, mongols in Persia, toppling Abbasid empire, had a hard time administrating large societies
Tamerlane Turkish conqueror, walked with a limp, took over Persia when Ilkhanate collapsed
Ottoman Empire Osman in 1299, conquered Balkan peninsula and Constantinople, taken over by Tamerlane, but then regained their empire, changed Constantinople to Istanbul
Karakorum capital city of Mongolian empire
guilds merchants and workers who join together to regulate production and sale of goods of within their common juristiction
Marco Polo (1253-1324) Venetian, best know long distance traveler, story preserved through a fellow prisoner
bubonic plague Black Death, caused a lot of death
Holy Roman Empire 962 actually a regional state ruling Germany
state building building regional states, local peoples come together to work the land and make the state run
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) After Mongols left, eliminated Mongol rule, Ruled by Emperor Hongwu, reestablished Confucianism, very central, relied on Mandarins and Eunuchs, cultural revival
Yongle Hongwu's successor, compiled all Chinese significant works, Yongle Encyclopedia, showed interest in return to Chinese culture, organized expeditions
Zheng He Eunuch Muslim admiral who lead expeditions to establish Chinese presence in Indian Ocean
Teotihuacan built upon the Olmecs, influenced a lot, bloodletting, seems to be focused on priests and religious ritual
Andean Society in Bolivia and Peru, beans peanuts and sweet potatoes, llamas, alpacas, cotton, canals, irrigation
Toltecs high point 950-1150 BCE
Mexica became the Aztecs, fought a lot, stole women and land
Aztec Empire lots of trade, Mexica overtook Oaxaca, 12 million people subjected,
Mound-Building people in Mississippi and Ohio River Valley, mostly hunter gatherers, declined in 13th century
Cahokia capital of 3rd Moundbuilding Era, two of them, second one bigger
Incas most centralized people, Andean, one of the largest empires ever
Battle of Tours/Poitiers 732 where Charles Martel beat the Muslims out of his lands
Castellan the person who has the real power over the knights in his area, answers to the count,
Charles Martel Grandfather of Charlemagne, defeated Muslims out of his lands
Clovis Big Germanic King who converted to Roman Catholicism, (first Louis) gave Roman Catholic church more power
Count Charlemagne gives authority to Counts which position becomes hereditary
Fief grant of land to a vassal from a lord, vassal gives loyalty and military service to lord
First world system economy 1250 trade becomes more connected, equal participation from everyone, luxury goods, distributes risk, banks and financing
Ibn Battuta North African Muslim traveller judge/lawyer who visited lots of places and help with Muslim law, didn't visit Europe
Jurchen and the Jin Empire North China, speak altaic language (related to Korean and Japanese), fast ripening new rice + tea= higher population
Southernization trade goods from the South spread to Mediterranian and West Europe = cotton, gold, spices, sugar, advances in mathematics, compass, starts Westernization
Created by: ksheehy96