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Midterm Review

QuestionAnswer
the idea that a ruler has total power over a territory and the people he/she governs absolutism
"In such condition. . . the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Who wrote this quote? Thomas Hobbes
What was Thomas Hobbes' most famous work? Leviathan
the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic reason
What did Thomas Hobbes call a world without laws? state of nature
focus on the power of human thought; stress rational, logical thinking in order to solve human problems humanism
this English philosopher believed in natural rights and wrote Two Treatises on Government John Locke
What name was given to the ascension of William of Orange to the throne of England? The Glorious Revolution
This document, signed in 1689, guaranteed certain liberties to citizens and Parliament. English Bill of Rights
thinkers who applied the methods of reasoning to human issues in order to solve human problems philosophes
This philosopher believed in separation of the powers of government Montesquieu
This philosopher's main focus was on the right to free speech Voltaire
This philosopher wrote The Social Contract and believed in the "general will of the people" Rousseau
This philosopher edited the Encyclopedia Diderot
This thinker believed that the "invisible hand" of supply and demand should be allowed to govern the economy Adam Smith
the idea that the government should not intervene in the economy laissez-faire
This event led the British government to tighten control on its American colonies French and Indian War
This act of protest in which colonists dumped crates of tea into the harbor was a major event leading to the American Revolution Boston Tea Party
This tax on printed materials angered colonists and increased tensions between the colonies and Britain Stamp Act
These were the first battles in the American Revolution Lexington and Concord
This document was signed on July 4th, 1776 Declaration of Independence
This battle ended the American Revolution Yorktown
The official peace treaty between the United States and Britain after the American Revolution Treaty of Paris
Author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson
The Declaration of Independence was heavily influenced by which Enlightenment thinker? John Locke
This document was the first plan of government for the US but proved too weak to keep the country together. Articles of Confederation
This event, in which a group of Massachusetts farmers launched a revolt, illustrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Shays' Rebellion
The general framework/plan for the United States Government is laid out in which document? Constitution
The basic freedoms enjoyed by all US citizens are contained in which document? Bill of Rights
After it was written, the Constitution had to go through a formal approval process in the states. This process is known as __________. Ratification
The three branches of the US government Judicial, Executive, and Legislative
This branch of government makes laws legislative
This branch of government carries out laws executive
This branch of government interprets laws judicial
The separation of powers found in the Constitution came from which Enlightenment thinker? Montesquieu
The author of the Bill of Rights James Madison
The French system in which society was divided into three classes or estates ancien regime
The French nobility made up this estate second estate
The French clergy made up this estate first estate
Everyone who was not a member of the clergy or nobility belonged to this estate third estate
The 2nd estate made up ____% of the population of France? 1.5%
middle class consisting of merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, managers, etc. bourgeoisie
the vast majority of the Third Estate; mostly poor, many extremely poor peasants
he was the French king when the 1789 revolution began Louis XVI
law-making group made up of representatives of the three estates Estates General
legislative body formed by members of the third estate after the first and second estates refused to reform the voting process in the estates general national assembly
the third estate made this pledge to continue meeting until a new constitution was drawn up Tennis Court Oath
the storming of this prison marked the beginning of the French Revolution bastille
France's independence day, celebrated on July 14th Bastille Day
this was the term given to the series of peasant attacks on nobles at the beginning of the French Revolution the Great Fear
this document, passed by the National Assembly, spelled out the basic rights of French citizens The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
newspaper editor who helped spread radical and violent ideas during the French Revolution Jean Paul Marat
he was the leader of the radical phase of the French Revolution Robespierre
she was the wife of Louis XVI Marie Antoinette
nickname given to the large number of executions that occurred during the radical phase of the French Revolution the Reign of Terror
type of government in which representatives are elected by the people of a country republic
type of government in which a king has power, but that power is limited by a written constitution constitutional monarchy
nickname given to a group of radical revolutionaries because they wore pants instead of knee-length breeches sans-culottes
this group was responsible for most of the executions during the Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety
name for the French revolutionary flag tri-color
The French king and queen were forced to leave Versailles and go to Paris after this event Women's March
this governing body took power after the Reign of Terror the Directory
this man used his military successes to gain popularity with the French people and take power in France Napoleon Bonaparte
a quick seizure of power by force coup
the system of laws which Napoleon put into place in France and areas he conquered Napoleonic Code
The series of battles that Napoleon caused across Europe Napoleonic Wars
France lost this major naval battle with Britain during the Napoleonic Wars Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon defeated Russia and Austria at this 1805 battle Battle of Austerlitz
a member of a small independent group taking part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces. guerilla
the name given to the ban on British goods that Napoleon tried to enforce during his rule Continental System
Napoleon's greatest mistake, and the one that eventually led to his downfall Invasion of Russia
Napoleon's final defeat Waterloo
leader of the British forces at the Battle of Waterloo Duke of Wellington
Created by: rowej78