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1Semester World Hist

Anthropology The study of human life and culture
Prehistory The shift from hunting and food gathering to systematic agriculture
The basic characteristics of civilizations A system of writing, governments, religion, cities, social structure, and art
The ability to acquire food on a regular basis meant Humans could give up their nomadic ways of life and begin to live in settled communities
All human beings belong to The Homo sapiens, sapiens
Hammurabi is remember for His law code, "an eye for an eye", collection of 282 laws
Unlike the leaders of other religions of the time, Jewish prophets could not Claim they alone knew the will of God, since the Jewish teachings were written down for anyone to read
Judaism The religion of the Israelites
The caste system was created by The Aryans
The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama
The Silk Road was a trade route between the Roman Empire and China that ran through India's Kushan Kingdom
Reincarnation The belief that the soul is reborn after death
Mahabharata The longest poem in any written language
Homer wrote Iliad and the Odyssey
Mount Olympus Home of the Greek Gods
Battle of Thermopylae Greeks held off the Persian army for two days
Government of Sparta Oligarchy, ruled by the few
Mycenae First Greek state
By 750 B.C., they polis, or city-state became The central focus of Greek life
Oedipus Rex Written by the Greek playwright, Sophocles
The astronomer Eratosthenes determined The Earth was round and calculated its circumference to be 24,675 miles
Hellenistic Era Age of expansion of the Greek language and Greek ideas to the non-Greek world - created by the conquests of Alexander the Great.
According to Plato Individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state
Pax Romana A period of peace and prosperity that lasted almost a hundred years
Patricians Great landowners who became Rome's ruling class
Vandals A German tribe that sacked Rome
Antony and Cleopatra Committed suicide after being defeated by Octavian
Spartacus A gladiator who led a massive slave revolt
Paterfamilias Head of the Roman family
Augustan Age Golden age of Latin literature
When the poet Juvenal said, "There's only two things that concern them: Bread and Circuses, " he was talking about The Roman masses being distracted from serious political issues by free grain and entertainment
Constantine The first Christian emperor
Edict of Milan proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity
Jihad Term used to describe The "struggle in the way of God"
Bedouins Nomadic Arabs who lived in the desert rather than in town
Hijrah The journey of Muhammad and his followers from Makkah to Madinah
Crucial part of every Muslim city Bazaar, covered market
Muhammad began to meditate in the hills because He became troubled by the gap between the honesty of most Makkans and the greediness of trading elites in the city
After Muhammad's death Muslim scholars drew up the shari'ah
Shari'ah A law code that provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives
Five Pillars of Islam Belief in one God and Muhammad is his prophet, or messenger; Pray five times a day facing Makkah; Give alms to the poor; Refrain from food/drink from dawn to sunset during month of Ramadan; Make a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in a lifetime
It was through the Muslim world that Europeans recovered the works of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers
Caliph Chief Islamic religious authority
Matrilineal societies Trace descent through the mother and patrilineal societies through the father
The people of Ghana often Traded their gold for salt, which was used to pass along a community's history
Many of Islam's beliefs Conflicted with traditional African beliefs and customs, which contributed to the slow spread of Islam in East Africa
The largest desert on Earth Sahara
In the absence of a written language, music and storytelling were Used to pass along a community's history
Ancestors were a key element in African religion because They were believed to be closer to the Gods
Confucianism was at the heart of The Chinese state government from the Song dynasty to the end of the dynasty system in the twentieth century
The samurai lived by a strict code known as Bushido
Bushido was based on the loyalty of The Samurai's lord
Followers of the Mahayana Saw Buddhism as a Religion, not a philosophy, with Buddha as the divine figure
Followers of the Theravada see Buddhism as a Way of life
Under early Germanic law, a wrongdoer had to pay wergild to The family of the person he injured or killed
At the heart of feudalism was Vassalage
Vassalage means Warriors swore loyalty to a lord, who in turn took care of their needs
The push for the Crusades came when Emperor Alexious I asked for aid
Domesday Book was the first census since Roman times
Saladin led the Muslim forces to retake Jerusalem from the crusaders
Magna Carta A document that strengthen the idea that a monarch's power was not absolute, but had limitations
Chivalry A code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
The most important gift a lord could give to a vassal was Land
Saint Benedict founded a community of monks that established The basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church
Taille An annual direct tax on land or property imposed by royal authority
Great Schism A division in Europe resulting from the election of two popes by different grouped of cardinals
The Black Death was a plague that was The worst natural disaster in European history
Vernacular The language of everyday speech
Scholasticism The study of faith and reason
Burghers City merchants and artisans
Serfs Peasants legally bound to the land
Guilds Craft business associations
Inquisition Heresy court or Holy Office
The final decrees of the Council of Trent reaffirmed Traditional atholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
John Calvin agreed with Martin Luther on Most important doctrines except predestination
The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety- Five Theses attacked The abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation
The High Renaissance in Italy is associated with Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo
The humanist movement had a profound effect on Education
Parents in the Renaissance Italy carefully arranged Marriages, often to strengthen business or family ties
Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales is an important work because Chaucer's use of The English vernacular was important in making his dialect the chief ancestor of the English language
Predestination The belief that God had determined in advance who would be saved and who would be damned
John Calvin Published the Institutes of the Christian Religion
Indulgence A release from all or part of the punishment for sin
John Cabot was a Venetian seaman who Explored the coastline of New England
Christopher Columbus Went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the Americas
Middle Passage The name for the journey of slaves from Africa to America
Created by: Hesha1924